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     H u m a n  n a t u r e 

                                                       Part l                  





  

An evolutionary view      



Survival instinct and social nature    
Throughout the whole of nature can be observed that basic for every living being is an individual survival instinct.    
However social species like humans have next to their individual survival instinct also developed a social or group survival instinct, expressed in their social brains and mind.
And in general social species in nature can only survive and find their safety in their group. Hence at least in the later part of human evolution for the individual survival of humans their social qualities must always have been at least as important as their individual survival instinct.  


Communication and cooperation    
In evolutionary sense man can be seen as the most successful species on the earth,  
and besides our numbers, our social abilities of communication and cooperation can be seen as our most important qualities for survival in our evolutionary past.    
Hence in general the evolutionary selected survivors must have always been the most social humans; the best communicating and cooperating, and in the biggest numbers.
And hence in evolutionary sense our social nature can be seen as the most basic as- pect of our human nature. And in general can be said that basically all living humans   of today have inherited this evolutionary developed social nature.       


Safety in social connectedness  
It may be clear that out of our natural individual survival- and fear-instinct there is a basic search in every human being for safety. And as mentioned, safety for humans is basically only possible in their social group, which means in social connectedness, loyalty, trust and reliability, which in the end means friendship . . . . .    




Thesis                      Humans are by nature the most social       
                                         beings on the earth
       



Most social beings  
Humans are the most social beings on the earth, for no other living being on the earth has the ability to connect, unite, communicate, collaborate and co-operate in such refined and detailed way as humans can.  
And this refined cooperation is only possible in refined social connectedness trust and reliability,  which in the end means friendship, respect, integrity, helpfulness, empathy, and loyalty  . . . . .  



Thesis                 Humans are by nature human-friendly beings      



Basic human-friendliness      
Out of our super social human nature humans are basically human-friendly beings.  
However, human-friendly, just as long as there is no reason to become hostile to the other or others.  
A human-friendly attitude can be observed all over the world in any country and in any culture. Ask someone for the road, and any individual will be ready to point you out or explain to you.  This, in spite of the fact that you are a stranger  . . .    
Humans are basically empathic and human-friendly beings, and those who are not, basically don't fit in any social society . . .    
And those who are not live on distance and separation, and deep-down in loneliness, frustration, and ultimately in misery.    


Empathy and mirror-neurons      
Our social human nature and social human mind have been evolutionary determined which is scientifically supported by the discovery of mirror-neurons in our human brain.
These evolutionary inherited mirror-neurons enable humans to experience empathy andto identify themselves with other humans,  and to experience feelings of connectedness sympathy and human-friendliness.    
Our mirror-neurons could also be called our "social neurons".    


Human-friendliness and human evolution      
So basically our social human-friendly mentality is rooted in our human empathy and our understanding that the other human is basically as we are ourselves.  
And from an evolutionary point of view our human empathy must basically have deve- loped from our instinct to protect our children; for empathy was needed to react on a child in distress and to save it. And only those who did so have survived in evolution.    
So there must always have been a natural selection on empathy, and probably starting already long before the time that humans became a distinct social and human-friendly species, e.g. evolving from some primitive solitary species.  





 

From small communities to huge societies  




Thesis                   Our human nature is evolutionary based on    
                                       living in small populations
.       




Small communities and human nature  
From an archaeological and anthropological point of view humans must have most of the time in evolution been living in very small communities, and often in bands of some tens till maybe a hundred or less; and from this we can understand that evolutionary our human nature is for some 99 % or more based on living in very small communities.
Hence living in our huge cities and societies of today means a tremendous challenge to our intelligence; and it requires adaptation in harmony with our human-friendly and social human nature  . . .    


Culture of human-friendliness and respect      
In a small society where we know every individual we can trust and respect the others because we know their respect, helpfulness, integrity and reliability by experience.  
However in a big society where we know only few individuals we can only trust the others if there is a common culture of human-friendliness, respect, loyalty, helpfulness reliability, integrity and truth  . . .
 
So basically we have to stay in harmony with our evolutionary and genetically inherited social human nature, and to maintain a social culture of human-friendliness which is respectful to any human being.  




Thesis                A social human-friendly mentality is basically    
                           one of the most important human qualities    




Thesis                    A common culture of human-friendliness,                                                  respect, integrity, loyalty, reliability and truth is  
                                a basic need for any society, and the  
                                      world-community as a whole.
     




Social culture versus socialism  
A social culture of human-friendliness, respect, integrity, loyalty, reliability and truth does not mean that this is a culture equal to socialism.  
Socialism is based on many fixed political principles and is basically a dictatorial and oppressive totalitarian system, and hence against human respect and integrity and against the basic human values of freedom and justice.  So it is basically against our human nature  . . .  
( see also "Politics" part lll )  
And a social culture of human-friendliness, respect and integrity etc. is basically a culture in harmony with our human nature.    


Social education and conditioning  
In our huge populations of today a common culture of human-friendliness, respect, reliability and truth is only possible if everybody has been educated and conditioned to a mentality in accord with our social human nature.  
However a natural social human culture is vulnerable for people with a human-hostile or a society-hostile mentality; for more peace, openness, relaxedness and trust will be the nature of that social culture.  
Hence a basic issue for every social community in the world is an educational and judicial prevention against antisocial society-hostile development and behaviour . . .    




Thesis             Education and conditioning are the most important  
                           basis of all culture and human development
.      




Social development and education      
For prevention against antisocial society-hostile development  of children is in the first place needed avoidance of child-neglect and poverty, and a course in education for all expectant parents. Child-neglect and poverty are known as basic causes of antisocial development, as well as an egoistic self-focussed mentality of parents.    
For a natural social development of all children a natural social education has to be seen as a basic condition, and starting already in pregnancy (education by the sound of voices and emotions) and from the earliest till latest childhood, and even beyond.    
And next also a social and universal moral education and conditioning have to be seen as a basic need, for our social human nature has to be protected against eventual anti- social influences. A social and moral education in the broadest sense is needed for every child and even adult for a truly social human culture.  


Social development and environment      
Basic needs for a healthy mental development of un-borns and new-borns are feelings of safety and security and being loved, and a harmonious social relation of the parents. A sense of insecurity creates fear, and fear inhibits and hampers brain development in un-borns, new-borns and children. And egocentric as well as conflicting behaviour of parents creates insecurity fear and an egocentric survival-mentality in all children.    
Also there is some scientific evidence that the quality of the nutrition of a pregnant woman influences the brain-development of her baby.    





  

Frustration anger and egocentrism  *   ( see  definition  )     




Frustration of desires creates anger  
It is not difficult to see that frustration of desires creates by and by a natural sadness or anger in any human who experiences that frustration.  
Also may be clear that a lack of our basic human needs creates frustration of desires for these basic needs, regardless whether we are aware of them or not.    
And in general can be said, that frustrated desires are the root-cause of almost all anger in humans  . . . . .     
However many of our desires are unconscious desires; for example anger out of pain arises out of the frustration of our longing back for our feeling before the pain . . .       
And in general we are also not aware of our unconscious desires for our basic human needs . . .    


Accumulation of frustration and anger           
If there are many frustrated needs and desires in us, then this will have an accumu- lative effect in us, and then there is bound to come a moment when our frustrations have become too much, and then we will (over)react on some new small frustration with a disproportional strong anger, and maybe even violence.    
However in general nobodies life is perfect, and hence many people move about in a normal state of being in accumulated frustration and suppressed anger . . . And in general without being aware of that . . .    


Anger and violence out of frustration           
Frustration of desires creates anger, but also can be seen, that wherever we meet anger fight or violence, in the end the cause must be in some frustration, and/or in frustrations in the past. And this counts as well for ourselves as for others.  
So, whenever someone becomes angry with us, it's important to understand that  
there is a frustration, and most probably also a previous frustrated state of being.  
And this can make us understand and feel some petty for the other, and often this understanding can prevent or inhibit our own angry reaction on someone else . . .    
Also this insight in anger and frustration can make us understand why there is so much fight and violence in the world . . .  


Frustration creates egocentrism  
Once frustration and anger has come up in us, we tend to become hostile, respectless and destructive, and also very egocentric . . .    
And long term frustration and anger creates an angry, negative, egocentric, and res- pectless mentality in all humans . . . ; and ultimately egocentrism can be observed as one of the root-causes of all human misery in the world  . . . . .  


Egocentrism impairs our empathic ability  
As said, in a state of anger and frustration we tend to become very egocentric. However the more frustrated and egocentric we are, the less will also be our empathy with others. So in a state of anger or frustration we don't care so much if we hurt others by our behaviour, words or decisions . . .    
However not only when our egocentrism comes out of anger and frustration it prevents or diminishes our empathic ability; also our egocentrism as such impairs or prevents our empathy, and hence creates a respectless behaviour towards others, and so in general also misery for others . . .    
And as already suggested, our human empathy can be seen as the very basis of all spontaneous pro-social human behaviour.       


Egocentrism creates respectlessness  
In general most people are not aware of their own egocentrism, but can clearly see the egocentrism of others, and see the effects of frustration and anger in respectlessness and often antisocial behaviour.  
Hence many understand the importance of human respect, but are meanwhile living in a frustrated and very egocentric mentality themselves, and hence also in a basic lack of empathy and human respect . . .  
Here can also be seen the fundamental importance of a basic education to some basic self-knowledge and understanding  . . .     


Egocentrism respectlessness and hostility  
If people live in their society out of a frustrated egocentric and respectless mentality, then that egocentric and respectless mentality also creates a hostile attitude towards all other people in that society . . .  
And in extremely capitalistic societies many people are lacking their basic natural needs, and are living in frustrated desires and easily become egocentric, respectless hostile, and eventually criminal, which in reverse creates then frustration, more ego- centrism, respectlessness and hostility of others, and so on . . .    


An egocentric society  
When a general and strong egocentrism has become the most basic trait of a society, then a general lack of respect for others is bound to create more and more frustration, hostility, unreliability, mistrust, and basically misery for all.    
And it can create an unconscious general misery in a seemingly "wealthy" society  . . .  




Thesis            Frustration (event. unconscious) is one of the most  
                            basic causes of all human anger and misery.
     




Thesis                The less frustration in a society, the more place       
                        there is for a social culture of human-friendliness,       
                           respect, creativity, reliability and prosperity.
            




Thesis                The well-being of all people in the world is of            
                            basic interest for everybody in the world
 . . .       





  

Egocentrism and enmity        



Enmity means misery  
To live in a frustrated egocentric and hostile mentality means also to create and to live in enmity. And once some enmity has been created, this means also to live in a certain fear and stress, and so basically also in misery.  
And it may be clear that an egocentric culture restrains all of her people from a safe, relaxed, free, peaceful and happy existence.  


Egocentrism and society-hostility  
Any human who lives in a long term frustrated egocentric, respectless and human- or society-hostile mentality is a potential danger to that social society, and is sooner or later bound to become malevolent and criminal.  
Hence to avoid such a frustrated egocentric and society-hostile development an oppor- tunity for development to a basic well-being of every human is needed.    


Collective egocentrism vs. peace  
Egocentrism can also become a collective phenomenon as a "group-egocentrism".  
And any society as a whole that lives in a collective egocentric hostile mentality com- bined with nationalism, arrogance, superiority and chauvinism is a potential danger to any other society, and to world peace.    
One of the harshest examples was the mentality of Hitler Germany during world war ll. The manipulated Germans considered themselves to be better people than all others; a superior race . . .   In fact they were manipulated to a collective narcissism, and their narcissism also meant contempt and a lack of empathy and a basic enmity towards other races etc. . . .    




Thesis                  In the end nobody wants to live in enmity.    



Thesis                          Not any society needs enmity.      



Thesis                          Not any country needs enmity.      




Egocentrism as a basic cause of conflicts           
In general can be said that almost all human conflicts are in the first place based on frustration and egocentrism. And in general frustration out of the egocentrism of some- one else, however also often out of our own egocentrism in relation to others.  
The more egocentric we are, the more we tend to blame the other side, and the less we want to see an issue in an objective perspective.    
To end a conflict we can choose for enmity and search for an egocentric victory, or we can search for an objective solution and end our enmity and go for a compromise and so for peace . . .    


Peace happiness and prosperity      
All cultures in the world share the basic value of peace; for peace is a basic condition for happiness and prosperity.  
However frustration and egocentrism in general have to be seen as a basic cause of enmity, and hence also as a basic threat to peace happiness and prosperity in any society in the world.    
And peace is a basic condition for development to all humans, and the development  
of all humans is also a condition for sustainable peace . . .       





  

Egocentrism and criminality        



A criminal society  
Nobody wants to live in a criminal society, where everybody must be seen as our enemy and where nobody can be trusted.  
Even when there is a constitution, rule of law and lots of police.    
For, the more criminals are moving about in a society, the more tense, hostile and mistrusting people of that society become. And it means to live always in fear, stress and frustration, and so in a general misery.  


Criminal mentality in a general sense             
Egocentrism and respectlessness can be seen as the basis of all criminality. And most criminals share a common quality which is a society-hostile, or even human- hostile mentality; the opposite of a social and human-friendly mentality.    
And they also share a lack of moral understanding and often an antisocial mentality, and sometimes also a malicious, or an ill evil mentality. Such as criminal psychopaths or ASPD - people; people with a suppressed or blocked human empathy, and hence also lacking a spontaneous and natural human respect.       
And obviously anybody with such a respectless and society-hostile mentality does  
not fit in a civilized social society.  


Criminal development process  
In general criminals are created by a lack of basic human needs; often child-neglect  
or poverty and/or broken family, or an antisocial education, or lack of moral education. And especially people with an innate brain disorder which causes a lack of impulse- control are sensitive for such upbringing.  
People with such upbringing easily develop out of frustration and conditioning an ego- centric non-empathic, mistrusting and respectless antisocial survival mentality.  
Once a society-hostile mentality has developed, school education goes wrong and chances to get a job diminish, and such a young person has almost no other choice than to develop a criminal survival-mentality and a criminal identity and personality.  


Many people . . . . .  
Many people in modern western societies who are not considered as criminals move about in a more or less criminal mentality.    
Many move about in a very egocentric, and more or less society-hostile survival- mentality. And mostly unconsciously . . .    
And also many move about in a more or less psychopathic mentality . . .    
This may be for the same reason as the "true" criminals, and/or the egocentric culture of modern western societies.  
However more or less the same (or even worse) antisocial egocentric survival mentality can be observed in many southern and eastern countries as well.    


Rules; mentality no issue  
To curtail extremely egocentric and criminal behaviour we live according rules; rules of law which state what is allowed and what not.  
Hence for many the issue is not whether harming someone else or not, but: "is this or that allowed or not" . . .    
And then also, anything not prohibited is allowed . . . . .    
For such people human respect or morality is almost no more an issue.    
And the cause of it can often be found in a very egocentric and more or less antisocial or even more or less psychopathic mentality . . .    


Conscious egocentric survival-mentality  
Many people also live out of a conscious egocentric and society-hostile survival-men- tality as part of their life-philosophy; often based on a   "social-Darwinistic" conviction. However, social-Darwinism creates a "snake-pit-society" . . .   And in fact the very cul- ture of modern capitalism is based on that . . .  
Social-Darwinism has nothing to do with Charles Darwin, and it has not any scientific basis. And there is not any social species on the earth where individuals live out of a society-hostile egocentric mentality, except modern man.    
Many are not aware that an egocentric society-hostile survival-mentality is contradic- tory to our super-social human nature, and that it basically means a criminal attitude towards our society, and that it is bound to create misery for all in the end . . .    


Crimes of passion        
Crimes of passion are often committed by seemingly totally normal people; and very often they are crimes out of extreme frustration, anger, jealousy, or hatred. And in general they are committed out of a very egocentric state of being, and often also out of a wrong or lacking moral education.  
However also often these people suffer (unknowingly) from the mentioned brain dis- order which causes a lack of impulse-control; and hence such people are basically irresponsible and unaccountable for their extreme actions . . . And then they are after all in need for treatment, control and guidance.       
Most crimes of passion are committed by people without a distinct criminal mentality.  


Lone criminals and egocentrism  
Out of social isolation, frustration of unconscious social desires and/or low self-esteem and lack of moral identity and moral understanding people can create their own ego- centric tunnelvision-world, and they may commit crimes based on (unconscious) egocentric desires for power or for self-value and importance, or to assert themselves.  
Obsessed by some personal conviction or even idealism they also can commit crimes of extreme violence. They can commit such crimes out of demonizing certain people and out of an extreme hatred towards them.  


Criminal psychopaths      
Criminal psychopaths are known for their lack of empathy, conscience and remorse, and for their egocentric contempt, ruthlessness, lust for use of power and violence, and for their cruelty, often caused by frustration hatred or malice.    
Although in general having blocked off their natural emotions and empathy, they are not totally unable to experience empathy, which makes them to extremely unreliable manipulative, glib and false people, who often can act to be very charming  . . .  
They basically live out of an extremely egocentric and almost fearless human-hostile survival-mentality, and out of an unattached, solitary power- and predatory identity.  
Out of their strong egocentrism and blocked empathy and conscience they live in a lack of human connectedness and in an antisocial personality. Hence psychopathy is sometimes also called: "antisocial personality disorder" or ASPD, which however is a more superficial and behavioural standard.    
Psychopaths also show a lack of basic social and moral understanding and they are basically solitary, ill, superficial and loveless people.    


Causes of psychopathy  
Child neglect, lack of security love and attachment in early childhood, and a long term antisocial environment is also the main cause of psychopathy.  
But also prenatal insecurity may be a cause. Some five months before birth a baby in the womb can already hear the voice of the mother and also of the father; however  
then also their eventual fights and emotions, which create insecurity and fear and may epigenetically change brain development. Also the baby may then under influence of mother's cortisol, adrenaline and testosterone epigenetically develop an altered brain constitution.  Hence the importance of the physical and mental well-being of pregnant women, and harmony in their relationship  . . .    
Lack of safety and security for un-borns new-borns and children may cause a strong egocentrism and a strong individual survival-mentality.  
Neuroscience suggests that there is also a genetic predisposition for psychopathy. However the lately discovered plasticity of our human brain may with a determined empathic and moral education and therapy prevent a psychopathic development, for psychopathy can also be seen as based on a lack of moral conditioning and moral understanding.  


Development of malice and evilness        
Long term frustration, anger, or an antisocial, or a distant authoritarian education can next to egocentrism also create a negative self-image, and a tendency towards male- volence and next to malice and evilness.    
This can be obvious and distinct, but often it can also be subtle or very subtle.    
And in general angry frustrated and malicious people are not aware of their state of mind, and especially not if it is on a subtle level . . .    
Malice and evilness can bring one to a malicious or evil identity and criminal identity. Such identity can however also develop as an (eventually unconscious) secondary identity which can take over in future critical situations . . .      
Also high level criminal psychopaths often live out of a malicious or evil power-identity.


Egocentrism and terrorism  
All kinds of terrorism - basically manipulation of people with threat and fear - are rooted in egocentrism and narcissism; regardless whether the terrorism is based on idealistic political or religious grounds.       
Basically a misuse of power based on the idea that one's ideals are higher or better than those of someone else, and based on a disrespect for the freedom and lives of other people. And in case of a religious terrorism also on arrogance and a demonizing of many unknown and innocent people.    


Rioting youth  
Young people most tend to riot in groups when they are living in boredom, frustration and anger. And in general young men feel a strong urge to use their energy, caused by their uncontrolled male hormones and immature brains.  
These aspects in combination with a collective egocentric group-power feeling and also not being under control of any authority causes their tendency to violence and destruc- tion; and official authorities are seen as a challenge then.
Repressive authoritarian education and/or lack of moral education and understanding, and also a lack of moral identity causes their lack of responsibility-awareness and their lack of group-responsibility.       


Bullying        
Bullying can be seen as an egocentric misuse of power and group-power, often out of a low self-esteem and power-conditioning by repressive authoritarian education, and out of a lack of empathy and moral education.  
Bullying happens also often out of frustration or subtle anger or subtle malice . . .    
Bullied people are often drawn back, introvert, or not so happy people; in fact people looking weak . . .    
And those who bully are always in search for the weak, to experience their power; which however in fact is just an act of pure cowardliness and foulness.    
Bullying at schools can often also be seen as symptoms of a narcissistic or (semi)- psychopathic development.    





  

Egocentrism as such        



Our egocentric human nature      
Ultimately every human being lives in a certain egocentrism or self-focussedness and selfishness to a certain level.    
And basically our egocentrism seems to be rooted in our natural individual survival instinct. It is hard to say whether our social survival instinct or our individual survival instinct is an evolutionary older quality, for even bacteria can show as well an individual as a social survival behaviour. So both of these survival instincts can be seen as very old and very basic.    
And in some extreme situations our individual survival instinct and egocentrism still today can be very much needed and eventually even save our life.  
So in certain situations in our life a purely egocentric mental state can even be very useful, necessary and important.  


Egocentric survival-mentality in a social society  
Although our egocentrism and individual survival instinct are basically a natural human given, within a civilized social society where every individual is protected and can feel safe in general there should be no need to live out of an individual survival-mentality. Here it is fundamentally disrupting; for it only creates an egocentric antisocial attitude and behaviour, which triggers the same primitive egocentric and antisocial survival- mentality and behaviour in others.  
And this is what can be observed in all huge and modern societies.  


Egocentrism empathy and psychopathy  
As mentioned already, egocentrism prevents or diminishes our empathy; however also the reverse is the case. If someone becomes used to block off his or her empathy, then that person has a big chance to become very egocentric or also narcissistic.    
And this is also the case with psychopathic and ASPD-people, and with many others with a more or less psychopathic mentality.       
Egocentrism and lack of empathy can be seen as the basic cause of almost all respectless behaviour among people. (next to demonizing)  


Conscious and unconscious egocentrism  
Many people tend to live in a blind, respectless and uninhibited egocentrism; in a men- tality of imaginary and excluding self-importance.  
And blind respectless uninhibited egocentrism is bound to be antisocial and creates a distance to all people, relatives and loved ones, and ultimately loneliness and misery.  
However also most less egocentric people are unaware of their egocentrism and live out of a blind and unconscious egocentrism.  
Others live however consciously out of a more or less society-hostile or more or less antisocial egocentrism which basically also means a more or less criminal personality.


Respectful moderated egocentrism  
People who are aware of their egocentric way of thinking and the negative effect of it on their own and on other people's lives can choose to change their focus more towards others and to diminish their egocentrism by focusing more on the positive qualities of others and empathy with others, which creates respect and true human-friendliness.  
Respectful egocentrism is a moderated egocentrism; moderated by ego-unimportance, empathy and respect, and can be social and human-friendly.  
However many are lacking that moderation and have become more and more unaware of their basically friendly and social human nature.  


Admission of making mistakes  
The more egocentric we are, the more difficult it is to admit mistakes, and the more true we are the more easy we can admit mistakes.  
Important is here to understand that nobody is perfect, and that everybody can make mistakes.  
Seeing oneself as fallible creates a less inflated ego, which is appreciated by all others; and one becomes more realistic, and more true.    


Rank status and egocentrism  
Desire for rank, status and self-importance may come out of an unconscious desire for safety in a social group, and/or out of a basic lack of self-esteem.  
However high rank or status can easily lead to complacency, arrogance, inflated ego and egocentrism. And so also to lack of empathy, respectlessness and an antisocial mentality, contradictory to our social human nature.  
In the more or less egalitarian small populations of our far ancestors rank or status in the sense of respect had to be earned by positive social behaviour towards all other members of that group. Otherwise that respect would not be shared by all others.  
But nowadays rank and status often depend only on positive judgments of high ranked people or people in power . . .    


Personal honour and egocentrism  
Personal honour can be seen as an imaginary egocentric dignity of a culturally based self-image.  
Mostly containing a self-judgment of importance, and an egocentric expectation to be judged and respected as a good person.       
Great personal honour is nothing but arrogance, and can easily become insulted, with all of the negative consequences . . .  
Great personal honour has often ended up in a criminal narcissism . . .    


Suppressed social mentality  
It may be clear that all humans have basically a primitive individual survival instinct as well as a primitive and/or evolutionary developed social nature.  
However our social human nature can easily become suppressed by a wrong educa- tion or extreme situations like circumstances of war etc.  
When young people grow up in unprotected loveless and dangerous situations, they are forced and conditioned to live out of their primitive individual survival instinct, and to block off their empathy and social human nature. It seems better then not to trust any- body and not to be vulnerable.    


Egocentrism and delusion of self-importance      
Our egocentrism basically also means a desire, assumption or delusion of self- importance. And this also means to be mainly or only focused on our own interests, and mostly excluding the interests of others and even of our own social group, not to mention our society.    
Basically our egocentrism makes us blind for the interests or needs of others, and it creates a loss of respect for them as well as an indifference to them.  


Awareness of egocentric attitude    
As already mentioned, humans have lived through many millions of years in small populations. Huge anonymous societies of which we don't know almost anybody have just recently developed. However if we don't know the people we are in touch with, we also don't know if we can trust them.       
And out of fear or education we tend to block off our super-social human nature, and switch over to our primitive egocentric survival instinct, and choose for a distant and often respectless and indifferent mental attitude.    
Therefore, living in our huge modern societies asks for awareness of a respectless, primitive egocentric, indifferent, or more or less human-hostile mentality.    


Collective egocentric mentality      
Our collective egocentric mentality has its origin in the combination of our egocentric desire of self-importance and our feelings of safety in a social group.  
Collective egocentrism means a kind of collective rank or status.  
A pronounced collective egocentric mentality can be found in religions, sport-clubs, political parties, cultures, nationalism, etc.  
Such organizations can create the delusion to be better people than others,  and can lead to arrogance, condemnation of others, hostility, and finally also to violence.    
Often it means a smaller society of people against a bigger society which they are also part of.    
We can love the people of our religion, culture or nation, but we need not to put them and ourselves on a higher place, for everybody has his or her own qualities and virtues.




Thesis                  Egocentrism and collective egocentrism are  
                     basically human hostile and tend to create enmity.    
                                           They are contradictory  
                        to our human-friendly and social human nature.
 




Thesis              Egocentrism is basically part of our human nature    
                           however, it needs to be under our control and  
                                moderated by our empathy and respect.
 




Egocentrism under control  
We can only keep our egocentrism under control by in the first place to become aware of it, and next to focus a little more on the interests, problems and sufferings of other people. Our egocentrism can be under our control in the same way as we keep our sexuality under control, or our hunger or greed when we are on a marketplace or so; and focussing a little more on our natural human-friendliness, empathy and respect can make that much more easy.    


Education and egocentrism  
Besides   becoming more egocentric and antisocial when raised in unprotected or hostile life circumstances where individual survival is needed, egocentric characters may also come out of spoiledness, and/or lack of brothers, sisters or friends to connect and share with. And egocentric parents are also examples and role-models for their children.    
Also authoritarian education often creates an egocentric mentality and an (eventually subtle) hostile, dominant or indifferent attitude towards others. And it also creates a lack of responsibility-awareness. Authoritarian education is suppressive, hostile and fascism alike; based on dominance respectlessness, obedience and punishment.    
However also a lack of moral education and moral identity can be seen as a general cause of blind and uninhibited egocentrism.  





  

Culture, egocentrism and survival-mentality      



Egocentrism and wealth  
In many rich societies wealth and desire for wealth has created a basic culture of egoism and egocentrism.  
For, because of our wealth we do not need the other anymore, and rich people start avoiding contact with poor, or even less rich people, and often become more and more egoistic, egocentric and arrogant.  
This creates more and more egocentric respectless and antisocial behaviour of the  
rich, which then also creates an antisocial survival-mentality in others, and so on.  
People with a survival-mentality cannot trust each other; the other may want some- thing from us, and can always be our enemy; so better keep the other on a distance and avoid any close contact . . .       


Insecurity fear and egocentrism        
If people have to live in individual insecurity and fear, also egocentrism comes up; for individual insecurity and fear appeal to our individual survival-instinct.  
And any basically social human living in an egocentric survival-society has basically to live there in insecurity and fear, and hence gets forced to live also out of egocentrism and an individual survival-mentality.    
For many people their egocentrism and more or less society-hostile survival-mentality is also based on insecurity of survival in their society  . . .    


Survival-mentality and psychopathizing effect        
This egocentric survival-mentality creates in view of our basically super social human nature a blocking off of our natural human empathy and natural human-friendliness and in that way it basically has a psychopathizing and criminalizing effect on our society.  
Psychopathizing, for extreme egocentrism and lack of empathy are the basic charac- teristics of psychopaths and narcissists, as well as an egocentric survival-mentality, which means basically also a more or less human-hostile and society-hostile menta- lity; the opposite of a natural social and human-friendly mentality.  
This psychopathizing principle out of insecurity is basically the same as what happens in babies and small children who later become the known psychopaths  . . .     


Collective egocentric power-groups within societies      
Small collective egocentric groups of power within societies with often a more or less respectless society-hostile mentality  and mostly unconsciously, can often behave in more or less hostile or corrupt ways towards their society. Often (in subtle ways) repressing and/or exploiting individuals and/or small or big parts of that society.    
Often they are people who live in a small world and often they can only think out of that small perspective; and that's why they are mostly unaware of their more or less society-hostile mentality. Their narrow thinking is part of their culture.  
Examples  
They are in general groups of people with common interests like professional groups, companies, institutions, governmental organizations etc.etc. With examples like: politicians of all levels, business people, people of banks, people in police, in insu- rance companies, hospitals, and cartel like companies like many pharmaceutical companies, GM-companies, arms-companies, oil-companies, but also organizations  
of physicians, lawyers, dentists, etc. etc.    


Family honour and egocentrism  
Collective egocentrism is also the basis of family honour. Great family honour means to imagine our family as being morally just and dignified and as such expecting posi- tive judgment and respect of others.  Here the image of the family determines the image and ego of her members. The collective egocentrism of great family honour (strong egocentrism) can just like personal honour easily become insulted, with all of its negative consequences . . .    
Family honour originates in old traditions and in low populated areas where people live more or less isolated in more or less closed family groups, or also in rich or powerful narcissistic families often living on their own property.    
However in modern densely populated areas with anonymous and individualized socie- ties family members are living more independent, and family ties have become much less tight, and often family image doesn't exist anymore, for here nobody is interested in the family of someone else.    


The law of the jungle    
Also criminal organizations are based on a collective egocentrism, their structure is basically antisocial and just based on the law of the strongest.  
You have to obey and keep your word, otherwise you will get punished or killed.  
However not only the "true" criminal organizations behave according the law of the jungle, also all kinds of companies and other organizations do so; for also their basic mentality and attitude is "might makes right". . .  
They use the power of money, the power of a social position, or the power of their function etc. We can think of banks, insurance companies, oil companies, the police, funeral companies etc. etc.    
All these are part of a cultural structure of collective egocentric groups, often or mostly living out of "might makes right" . . .       


Cultural conditioning of egocentrism      
In general people also live out of a more or less egocentric survival-mentality because of their conditioning. They have been programmed from childhood on with an egocen- tric survival-mentality; and often dictated by American movie industry and commerce in western or westernized societies.    
However also before the time of American movies people have often been living out of an individual survival-mentality, but not out of a systematic cultural conditioning, but out of a direct necessity; out of poverty and insecurity of survival, created by the ego- centric and narcissistic rich.  


Global egocentric survival-education      
This cultural egocentric and basically society-hostile survival-education is still con- tinuing all over the world by all kinds of movies, books, media, computer-games,  
TV-stations etc. etc.    
It creates a more and more greedy hostile and chaotic world, which becomes more and more uncontrollable and basically more miserable to live in . . .    





  

Egocentrism and human misery          



Our social network and egocentrism      
Because of a general egocentric survival-mentality all over the world, all people strong- ly depend on their social network; a network of people who can be trusted and who are our friends and relatives and who are helpful and tend to share with us.  
And many people behave in a more or less social way within their small social network However beyond that network they are part of an egocentric survival culture, and often creating misery for themselves and for others . . .   And with that mentality and mood they return home every day,  and over time that distant and basically hostile egocentric survival-mentality gets also integrated in their small social network  . . . . .     


Frustration, egocentrism and interaction      
It can often be observed that unconscious and uninhibited egocentric behaviour comes directly out of (accumulated) frustration and anger. And then in general, frustration and anger directly or indirectly created by the egocentric behaviour of others . . .    
And although in the so called "developed world" egocentric behaviour in general has its roots in a comparative wealth and a culturally conditioned egocentric mentality, or in a lack of basic human needs, it mostly shows up in direct interaction between people in frustration and accumulated anger.       


Egocentrism desires and misery  
However also can be seen that the more ego-centred we live, or the more important  
we make our egos, the more we live in desires and expectations; and hence also the more we live in frustrations, anger and misery . . .    
And the more empathic altruistic true and modest we live, the less we live in desires frustrations and anger  . . .          


Basic global consequences of uninhibited egocentrism      
Egocentrism represses and prevents human empathy and hence creates a lack of natural human respect. And where there is egocentrism and lack of empathy and respect, there is bound to be hostility, and often fight and violence . . .    




Thesis                  All dominance, suppression, humiliation,  
                   exploitation, misuse of power, violence, rape and war     
                    comes directly or indirectly out of respectless, blind,    
                              and uninhibited human egocentrism.
 



Thesis                  Blind and uninhibited human egocentrism    
                         is the root-cause of almost all human misery     
                                             in the world  
. . . . .
     




Egocentrism against ourselves      
Where there is egocentrism and lack of empathy and respect, there is also a lack of ability to experience love, beauty and happiness . . . , the very highest human values in everybody's life . . . . .    
And in this way our own egocentrism appears to be against our own interest; against our highest quality of life. And also, the stronger our egocentrism, the more distance, isolation, frustration and misery it creates . . .    
And the more our lovelessness, and the less our happiness, the more dull and boring our life becomes . . .   (hence the urge to excitement and risk taking of psychopaths)  
However ironically, the goal of our egocentrism was to attain to happiness in the first place
 . . . . .     


Egocentrism prevents altruism and friendship      
Egocentrism also prevents altruism, friendship and loyalty, because of a lack of feelings of connectedness and empathy. Hence very egocentric people in general  
have no, or no real friends; they mostly have only superficial and distant connections with other people, which sooner or later creates loneliness and misery.       
And empathetic respectful and reliable people tend to stay away from them, because egocentric people are in general frustrated, lacking respect, distant, closed, and often also unreliable  . . .       
For true friendship is needed: empathy, altruism, respect, reliability, and loyalty . . .    


Egocentrism against our society      
As mentioned, egocentrism creates a lack of empathy and human respect, but also it can be observed that it creates a lack of responsibility-awareness, a lack of reliability, and a lack of human-friendliness, and also a lack of justice, modesty, respect for nature, positive creativity, and a social indifference and society-hostility . . .  
And a strong egocentrism is also a cause of uninhibited and boundless greed.  


Culture of moderated egocentrism      
Understanding the reality and importance of all of this forces us towards a culture of a consciously moderated egocentrism; for although our egocentrism is natural, it has to be balanced by our natural social human nature of empathy, respect, loyalty, and human-friendliness, as well as by our responsibility-awareness, realism and sense of justice . . .    


Reducing individual egocentrism      
Awareness of our individual egocentricity and its negative effect on others and on our own quality of life can be seen as most important to reduce it. However for becoming aware of it, is most needed to learn to be true to oneself . . .   And for this is most needed our human integrity, one of our most basic universal human virtues.  And next also all other basic human virtues make us less egocentric.  (see part ll)  
However also developing our sense of humour can help against egocentricity, for spon- taneous and true laughter can make us easily forget our importance.  And especially learning the art of laughing about oneself, and our admission of making mistakes sometimes can reduce our egocentricity and make us more true; as well in our every day life as in our intimate relationships  . . .  
It helps to take ourselves less seriously, and makes us less egocentric and more true.
And last but not least, also specific meditation techniques can bring us to more aware- ness of our true human identity and the untruth in our ego-centredness.       


Reducing frustration and egocentrism in others      
Much misery in the world can be avoided by reducing frustration and egocentrism in others by acting and behaving in a more empathetic and respectful way, and especi- ally with more respect for other peoples freedom and well-being, and in that way creating more sense of freedom and well-being in others.  
Helpful can be here also awareness of our basic human vices.  
(see part ll)      





  

Trust and reliability          



Our small-group nature      
Because of our evolutionary shaped nature of living in small groups humans tend to trust each other, unless there is a reason to doubt or mistrust.    
Evolution has shaped our trusty faithful nature by continuously selecting out
 unreliable people, and selecting the faithful cooperative ones for reproduction.  For throughout human evolution trust and faith have been a basic aspect of cooperation and social life; hence, trust and faith can be seen as a basic part of our human nature . . .    


Trust, mirror-neurons and oxytocin      
The evolutionary developed mirror-neurons in our brains may be responsible for the human tendency to trust. As said these mirror-neurons make people to identify them- selves with other humans,  which creates empathy and feelings of connectedness, and hence also our tendency to trust.  
However also the evolutionary developed neurotransmitter/hormone of oxytocin in our brains and body is a physical datum, and contains a human determination to empathy and trust.    


Trust and vulnerability      
The evolutionary heritage of our social quality of being trustful and faithful makes every human very vulnerable for lies, deception and unreliability.  
And in the small communities of the ancient past humans were not living any more according the law of the strongest, and unreliable members lost their respect and con- sideration and were soon locked out, for they were not real friends.    
However in our big communities of today where we don't know most of the people, many unreliable people get away with unreliability, lies and deceit . . .    
Hence a psychopathic or more or less psychopathic mentality can be seen as one of the biggest threats to any bigger anonymous society . . .  


Abuse of human vulnerability      
Unreliability, lies and deceit mean a misuse of trust and faith, and an abuse of our human vulnerability; it means might makes right, and a jungle-mentality; immoral, antisocial and human-hostile . . .    
Unreliability and deceit arise from a lack of empathy, respect, integrity and responsi- bility-awareness, which is in general the outcome of blind egocentrism and a lack of moral understanding; basically the traits of psychopaths and narcissists.    




Thesis                       Nobody wants to be in touch with  
                             unreliable people, even not unreliable  
                                          people themselves . . .
 




Reliability trust and integrity      
Reliability is basically a social human quality, based on a human-friendly mentality, and unreliability, lies and deceit are based on a  human-hostile, or (more or less) criminal mentality . . .  
Trust and reliability are needed for feelings of connectedness, friendship and for all human cooperation. Integrity is the basis of reliability, for integrity means also to be true. Reliability can be seen as the outcome of the basic human virtues of integrity  
and human-friendliness.    


Reliability and loyalty      
Often can be seen that we are only reliable as long as there is no loyalty required, and as long as there is no effort, devotion, dedication or commitment needed.
And in fact is our reliability then only a superficial and distant reliability, or even a faked reliability, to create the trust, friendship and loyalty of others . . .    
But then we are basically missing sincerity and integrity, which can be seen as a lack of some of the most basic human virtues or moral qualities . . .    


Reliability trust and the internet      
Our human vulnerability for lies, deception and unreliability makes us also vulnerable on the internet, as well for misinformation as for internet criminality.  
However also for stealing and misuse of our own privately communicated or published information.  
And especially children of all ages and also adolescents are vulnerable. And warnings and education against manipulative sexual internet crime make children defensible, but at the same time also more anxious, suspicious, distant and egocentric . . .  
Our human vulnerability on the internet also shows an urgent need for a global univer- sal moral culture  . . .  


Reliability trust and the media      
Our basic and natural human tendency to trust makes us also vulnerable for mis- information and miseducation via media, computer-games and books etc.  
And also here can be seen a very urgent need for a universal human morality, and a sincere and as much as possible objective information.  





  

Property empathy and greed      



Respect for property  
Even our evolutionary closest family of primitive chimpanzees and other primates respect the property of food more than status or rank.  
However at the same time they are out of empathy easily ready to share their food with other members of their group, and in that way gaining sympathy and friendship, which improves their social bond and feelings of safety.  
And also in human life empathy, respect, sharing and helping each-other can be seen as crucial for social life.    


Empathy and sharing        
Just as these other primates humans respect in general each-other's property out of empathy, understanding and respect and out of a positive attitude towards each-other. However, understanding, empathy, respect and a positive attitude towards the other are also the basis of sharing of those who have property that others don't have . . .   And so we can also ask where is the understanding, respect and empathy of all the rich people in a society for the poorest in that society . . .  


Spoiled egocentric mentality  
As mentioned already, people living in wealth tend to become more egocentric, less social and arrogant. And so, many people become spoiled, indifferent and even society-hostile by living in wealth and in this way wealth also creates the power of money and corruption . . .  
And in general can even be said: The more wealth and property, the more egocentrism and narcissism, and the less respect, empathy and tendency to share  . . .  
And also here can be seen that there is a basic need for a moral education and edu- cation towards an understanding of this aspect of our human nature  
. . .       


Sharing in ancient communities  
In the small communities of our ancient past those who did not want to share showed a lack of loyalty and lack of friendliness and reliability and would lose connectedness, loyalty, respect and protection of the other members of their group.  
And in the ancient past only those with enough empathy, understanding and loyalty could be a respected part of the group and survive and reproduce themselves.  
Sharing is part of the price of being part of a social society, and who doesn't want to share is in fact not part of that society; and regardless whether that is a big or small society  . . . . .    


Our human greed      
Greed can more or less be seen as a natural human quality, for anything beautiful in the world is attractive, and the human desire to possess that is not unnatural.    
And human greed can be seen as originating in our evolutionary hunter-gatherer past, which however basically must have been a "greed" out of need . . .
However, a boundless and uninhibited greed of never enough, and an antisocial and blind greed create basically misery for oneself and for others; for it basically means a very egocentric or narcissistic mentality, and a lonely and loveless life, without any true and genuine happiness . . . . .   And for many, greediness can also be seen as part of an addiction out of dissatisfaction . . .  Hence, the never enough . . .    
And besides this, in the end human greed has also a very destructive effect on nature and ecology, which we are all part of
. . .    





  

Most basic human needs      



Physical needs      
Most basic physical human needs are for many people obvious: clean water and air, healthy food and clothing, healthy shelter, and a healthy natural environment.  
However in which the quality of clothing and shelter are more or less depending on climate and geographical circumstances.    


Social needs      
Our most basic social needs are: social connectedness, security and safety of family, peace, a sexual relationship, intimacy, and being accepted respected and valued, and being supported, and the friendliness and friendship of others.  
And the essence of the meaning of  friendliness and friendship is love in the end . . .    


Need for a father figure      
One of the negative consequences of living in an egocentric (and also more or less narcissistic) survival-society is also a certain easiness of divorce of married and un- married couples when there are children. And in general it is mostly the father who leaves his wife and children for whatever reason.    
However from that moment on these children are missing their father figure, who was protective, supportive, reliable, and also an example and role model. And in general that father has also created an attachment, devotedness and trust, and feelings of safety and security.  
But when that father leaves his children their trust, attachment, devotedness and feelings of security can get heavily damaged or totally destroyed. And moreover the children's feelings of self-worth and self-esteem can easily get damaged . . .       
Many men in the world however think that children can easily live without a father when there is still the mother. However often totally unaware of the damage they create by their divorce or abandonment.    


Being accepted valued and supported      
As mentioned every human needs also the feeling of being accepted and valued, and being supported, for this is part of our social human nature. It creates feelings of con- nectedness security and unity.    
And although every human needs being accepted valued and supported, especially children with their still developing brains have a basic need for support and being valued for a social and morally positive way of life. And basically this can also be seen as a need for feelings of connectedness and being loved.    


Human need for natural life circumstances      
Although people are able to survive in totally artificial and man made living conditions, in general must be said that these are not healthy living conditions in the long run.   Basically all humans are part of nature and part of a natural ecosystem.  
And also the presence of nature in the direct life environment is needed for all humans to live in a sense of well-being; such as gardens, trees, parks and nature reserves etc. in and close to all densely populated areas like cities, towns and suburbs.    


Lack of basic human needs      
Lack of any of all these basic human needs creates natural desires for them, however mostly unconscious. And these desires are frustrated then, and that frustration sooner or later will create anger, negativity, respectlessness, hostility and enmity, and in the end maybe even violence or criminality.    
And basically this means a diminishing of the quality of life for all . . .    
So in the end the well-being of each and every member of our society is basically a matter of our common interest . . .       




Thesis                 Every human community should take care
                             of the well-being of all of her members



Taking care      
This however means also to take communally care of the education development and functioning of everybody in our society . . .    





  

Our sexual nature      



Sexual nature and need      
In general can be said that all human beings have a basic sexual nature, for repro- duction is a basic principle of life itself. All humans have a sexual brain and a sexual body, and consequently all sexually developed people have also a sexual need.    
Hence, basically all sexually developed humans have also a social need for a sexual relationship.    


Sexual frustration      
A lack of a sexual relationship creates a frustration of sexual desires; and if this frustration lasts to long people tend to become irritable, angry, egocentric and next (eventually repressed) aggressive and ultimately even violent.  
Hence the importance for every sexually developed human of a sexual relationship.    


Sexual attraction      
Sexual attraction can be out of need, because of our basic sexual nature, or there  
can be a genetical sexual attraction, or an attraction only based on our immune sys- tem related compatibility genes, which is in practice an attraction by unconscious smell. And of course this kind of sexual attraction is independent of being married or not, or having a partner already or not.    
And such genetically based sexual attraction can eventually be so strong, that it gets for many beyond their control, and forces them to betrayal of their partners.       
Unawareness of this natural genetic phenomenon must have created much misery throughout of human history, just out of ignorance and misunderstanding . . .    


Sexuality and intimacy      
As far as reproduction is concerned intimacy in sex seems to be of no use.  
However the experience of our sexuality in harmony, love and understanding can allow us to experience an intimacy and relaxedness which is needed for true orgasm.    
And in particular for most women, but also for men intimacy and love are essential for the quality of their orgasm.    


Sexual orgasm      
It is said that many people in the world do not know the experience of orgasm.  
Many confuse the experience of "coming" with orgasm. However those who know orgasm know also the difference between orgasm and just "coming".    
But also orgasm can be experienced in different "levels", depending on one's ability to let go all mental burden, and to attain to a state of  total  mental relaxation.    
Some people can attain to a state of extreme joy love and happiness in orgasm, all depending on one's ability to be in a  totally  positive state of  total  mental relaxation, and to be in  total  harmony with one's partner . . .    
However also must be said that the more egocentric or psychopathic we are, the less our ability to experience true orgasm  . . . . .       


Sexual bond in relationships      
Sexual orgasm creates a strong sexual bond and harmony between partners, which prevents them from looking for other partners.  
On the physical level in our brains orgasm has an effect of release of the neurotrans- mitter of oxytocin which tends to make people more monogamous.  
However on the other hand also lack of sexual orgasm or lack of sexual contact in a relationship can finally create a split in that relationship; especially if then one of the partners meets a "genetically fitting" sexual partner. And regardless of a former sin- cere promise of love forever . . .    
Hence when sex in our relationship declines or disappears for whatever reason, it should be seen as an alarming sign for our relationship  . . .     (unless old age).  


Our monogamous nature        
Until the time that our very far ancestors in ancient times have moved from the trees  
to the savannah probably they have lived in small bands like chimpanzees, with one dominant and fearless high testosterone male fertilizing all females.  
However when they moved to the savannah they became very vulnerable for predators, and all dominant and fearless males must have soon become eaten by savannah pre- dators when they wanted to defend their group. And when the most dominant continu- ously were selected out, the less dominant and "less fearless" males must have learned to collectively defend their group, in which they were stronger and survived.   
However, now the remaining low testosterone males must have started to fertilize the females and to pass on their epigenetic qualities. And a continuous loss of high testo- sterone dominant males must have been the beginning of our more or less monoga- mous human nature.    


More or less monogamous        
Although in general can be said that humans are by nature monogamous, human monogamousness is also dependent on (epi)genetically determined mental and phy- sical qualities, like testosterone-oxytocin rates, amount of high calorie food which raises testosterone levels in men, and being raised by monogamous parents or not. But also encounter of genetically very attractive partners, and life circumstances like  
e.g. one man in frequent separated close presence of other women, or the reverse,   often plays an important role.  
In modern western societies with separate work circumstances of husbands and their wives such situations are more likely to occur than in rural areas, or in the small societies of our ancient ancestors.    
Hence for the sake of monogamousness partners have also to use their intelligence, and especially for the sake of sense of safety and security of their children  . . . . .  


Oxytocin empathy and intimacy        
Change from the trees to the savannah must have had also an effect on the human development of empathy, trust and connectedness.  
The continuous danger in the savannah must have had an effect of natural selection of the most empathic and social "humans"; for only those who were empathic and social have protected each other, and only they can have survived in evolution, and repro- duced and passed on their genes.       
But for social and empathic behaviour the neurotransmitter/hormone of oxytocin is needed, as well as for feelings of human connectedness and monogamousness. However, this same neurotransmitter of oxytocin is also needed for the experience of trust and intimacy  . . .       
So the empathy-hormone of oxytocin is also of basic importance for the quality of our sexual experience  . . . . .     


Our sexual orientation      
Modern brain science has discovered that our heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual nature is established by our developed brain functioning during our prenatal stage.    
And the innate nature of homosexuality and bisexuality makes it unjust, inhumane and in moral sense a crime to demonize these people because of their nature  . . .     
But as many or most heterosexuals feel disgusted by the very idea of homosexuality and tend to believe in the unnaturalness of it, they may easily tend to condemn these people and to demonize them.    
However homosexuals cannot carry any guilt for their nature and should be free to live according to their nature as long as they do not harm or interfere with the freedom of others. Although if they are aware of the "sensitivity" of many heterosexuals and the culture they are living in, it often seems better to be a little careful to demonstrate openly their nature.    
And hence should basically recognition of their innate nature be seen as a more urgent issue for them than their human rights  . . .    


Sexual vulnerability      
Something basic to understand is also the vulnerability of women to get pregnant, and the vulnerability of children who are not yet sexually developed, or who do not yet understand their still developing sexuality.  
Most important is here the respect, empathy and responsibility-awareness of men.  
So an issue of awareness, understanding and moral understanding.    


Pedosexuality           
All pedophiles and sexual child abusers who pretend to love children prove basically the opposite in their behaviour; and should hence only be called "pedosexuals".    
And basically should the (self) qualification of "pedophile" in the sense of a sexual identity be seen and established as  a sexual and mental disorder, and not as a sexual orientation. A "pedophile" identity and lack of impulse control may be the cause of a compulsory pedosexual behaviour.  
It should be noted however that there may be many (eventually occasional) sexual child abusers who don't see themselves as pedophiles, and in particular first offenders.
The relatively low rate of recidivism of child-abusers compared to other criminals may be caused by the initial unawareness of the mental damage it can create in children.
And also many cases of child-abuse may be caused by only a lack of impulse control of the abuser.    
However pedosexuality in general can be seen as based in a very egocentric or more or less psychopathic or narcissistic mentality . . .    


Sexual crime in general  
Sexual crime is in general the outcome of sexual frustration, blind egocentrism, lack  of empathy, respect and awareness, human-hostile mentality, lack of impulse-control, or an overheated basic sexual desire, and often also desire for power and control out  of a (more or less) psychopathic and/or narcissistic mentality.  
Hence the importance of a profound and realistic sexual, and moral education and especially on the subject of vulnerability of young children and the mental damage sexual acts with them can create.    





  

Human ego and identity      



Many identities  
Our human identity is not just one identity, but there are many imaginations, qualities, attributes, functions and properties etc. which we identify ourselves with.    
However in general people have one main-identity or ego in their personality, and still several or many other identities related to various life circumstances.    


Some frequent and also basic human identities:      


Our physical identity  
Our physical identity is our physical appearance with which we identify ourselves.  
For example: our racial identity, gender, big or small posture, strong or potent man, attractive woman, black or blond hair, big or small muscles, sharp or snub nose, big or small breasts, brown or blue eyes, young or old (looking) etc. etc.    


Our socially related identity  
Our identity in relation to other people, as: father-identity, or mother, son, daughter, uncle, friend etc. and also our identity as a sexual being, and next also our profes- sional identity, as housewife, teacher, storekeeper, lawyer, etc.  
Our socially related identity could also more or less be called our functional identity.  


Identity of leader or boss  
Bosses are basically dominant and respectless, and true leaders (although somewhat scarce) are basically empathic and respectful.  
A boss is basically an authority and basically an enemy, and a leader is basically a friend. And domination always contains an aggressive attitude . . .  
A boss-identity is basically acting from an antisocial egocentric attitude, and a leaders identity basically from an empathic respectful and social attitude.  


Wealth identity      
Our identity based upon what we have.    
It can give us false feelings of self-importance out of our personal wealth. This kind of identity can make us more egocentric and narcissistic, and diminish our spontaneous human respect. (e.g. owners of expensive cars tend to be less respectful towards pedestrians than owners of ordinary cars).    
Identifying with our wealth comes out of low sense of self-value, inferiority complex, and no sense of true human values, and leads us to impressing others with our expensive properties like our house, boat, car, clothes etc. etc. Our "status"-symbols.  


Macho-identity  
Identification with a cool, important, arrogant, and apparently fearless self-image, often hiding low self-esteem, insecurity, fear, or inferiority complex.    
However acting a high self-esteem, with denial and suppression of feelings, sensitivity, empathy, beauty, love and happiness. A theatrical and basically psychopath alike self- image . . .   However many psychopaths live out of an original macho-identity.    


A criminal identity  
Identification with a society-hostile, human-hostile, criminal, or even evil self-image,  
out of negative experiences, old frustrations, and a strong individual survival-mentality. Characteristic are an extreme egocentrism, unreliability, and a lack of empathy and natural human respect and trust, and a lack of moral understanding and a (more or less) immoral way of thinking.  
A criminal identity is the opposite of a moral, or morally positive identity, and can also be seen as a (more than) semi-psychopathic identity.  


Our imaginary identities  
Although almost all of our identities are imaginary, there is also an imaginary identity as the person we would like to be; such as: I am a good driver, or I am a cool person, or a good hunter, a very intuitive woman, a good chart reader, a spiritual person, a courageous man, a very tough guy, etc. etc.    


Rational identities  
Our identities in a more or less theoretical sense, like:    
I am a European, or a mortal, a lottery player, a cosmic being, an animal or primate   in evolutionary sense, etc.  


Our national, or ethnic identity  
Our identity connected with our country and culture, which can however easily become chauvinistic or even collective-narcissistic, and in that case it is against global unity, and against a global-humane identity or humane idealistic identity . . .


A human-friendly identity  
A human-friendly mentality creates also a human-friendly identity, in the same way as an egocentric survival-mentality creates an egocentric survival identity. However in general this happens unconsciously.    
A human-friendly identity means basically friendly and respectful to all others; and an egocentric survival identity means an indifferent or even respectless attitude towards all others; and often all friends and relatives included  . . .     
  

A healthy identity      
A healthy identity can be called an identity which creates feelings of self-value and sense of one's own dignity, and which fits in a social society.    
Basic for a healthy ego-identity is whether we try to be a good or valuable man or not; morally positive or not, and human-friendly or not.    


Our moral, or morally positive identity      
A morally positive, or "good-man-identity" means to see ourselves as a more or less valuable man for others and for our society and humanity, and for nature which we are all part of. This also means an identity of integrity, truth, human-friendliness, empathy, reliability and loyalty and all other basic moral virtues.  
(see part ll )      
It creates a positive self-image, feelings of self-value and dignity, mental relaxedness and self-respect.  However without the expectation to be judged and respected as a good person by others. So without any feelings of honour or arrogance out of it, which requires some awareness and truth.    
A morally positive identity is the opposite of a criminal, or human-hostile identity.    
In terms of Freudian psychology it can also be seen as more or less the "super-ego".  
And also can be seen, that the more frustration and anger in us, the weaker our moral, or morally positive identity  . . . . .  


A useless-man identity  
A bad- worthless- inferior- or useless-man identity means feelings of inferiority, and a lack of self-value, and in general also depression and misery.  
Such an identity can be created by feelings of guilt, and/or by a very authoritarian dominant and condemning education, or by a low self-esteem out of a non-creative and/or (eventually apparently) useless or meaningless life.    


An idealistic identity      
Responsibility-awareness for the quality of life of others, society, humanity, or nature which we are all part of, can create a social, human-friendly and idealistic identity, able to unselfish, disinterested and free of charge creativity.  


Identity of truth      
An ego-identity of truth could also be called a "true man" identity; to see ourselves as an as much as possible true man, and based on our sincere intention to be as much as possible a true man. It basically means an ego of realism and truth-focussedness, and of integrity and sincerity; so an ego that can also make mistakes sometimes, and an ego that can also see things wrong. It means to be always on the side of truth and realism, which basically also creates openness. But as openness also creates vulnerability for abuse, that openness has always to be according circumstances . . .
Truth also creates the experience of integrity and sense of one's own dignity, and it also means to be true to oneself  . . .    And integrity and truth are also needed to experience love and happiness, and it creates trust in our loved ones and others.


Religious identity      
Our religious identity is in general our identity as being part of an organized religion as Christian, Muslim, Hindu or Jew etc. And all outer signs, behaviour, rituals and tradi- tions are an expression of it.  
But a religious identity has in general also the basic aspect of connectedness with God(s), Allah, or the Ultimate Truth.    
However any imaginary religious identity stands in sharp contrast with our existential and most basic human identity . . .    


Atheistic identity      
An atheistic identity means our identification with a self-concept connected with a dis- belief in any concept of God, which in general means a self-concept of basic alone- ness in existence.  
An atheistic identity is often based on the assumption of a (future) scientific explica- bility of existence by means of physics and mathematics and exclusion of anything beyond mathematical logic and physics.  


Changeable identities  
Most previous identities can be called our personality-identities or our egos.    
And all of our egos or personalities are basically thoughts and imaginations about ourselves, and give us a sense of some self-importance, value, or sometimes even inferiority, and always in some way related to others.  
And also, these identities can change according to our circumstances, and during our lifetime. They change by changes in our social relation to others, or profession, social function, rank, religion, age, etc. etc.  
In one situation we have a dominant or authoritarian identity, and in a next situation we are an innocent driver who made a mistake by accident when fined by the police.    
In this moment I am this, and in the next moment in another situation I can be some- thing or someone else . . .    Hence, our egos cannot be our real and true identity . . . They are all just thoughts or imagination, or even delusion . . . . .  


Our true and most basic human identity      
Also our egos (thoughts and imaginations) are not identities on their own; something  
in us has to identify with them; and this can only be our true identity . . . . .  Our direct existential identity, or our being, independent of any imagination or thought . . . . .
And also, if all of our egos are not our true identity, then our true identity can only be that what remains when all of our ego-thoughts, ego-imaginations and ego-feelings are absent . . . When in a certain moment in a certain situation we are not identified with any of them . . . . .     


Direct experience      
This in general only happens in a state of being in which we experience total happi- ness, bliss, love, joy, beauty, gratitude, orgasm, or meditation; when all of our rational and imaginary identities, our egos, have become totally unimportant and forgotten.    
When in a certain moment all of our rational thinking has become switched off and blocked off . . . . .
And also can be experienced that the more true we are, the deeper our ability to expe- rience beauty, love, gratitude, happiness and orgasm etc . . . . .    


Imaginary or existential  
It can be easily observed that the more we are ego-centred, the more we are untrue, and the less we can experience love and beauty, and the more imaginary, fake, distant and ultimately miserable we become . . . . .  
Here can be clearly seen that our true and most basic identity is not our ego identity.
Our true identity can also be called our ego-less, or existential identity; our identity, free from any imagination, judgment or thought. It is something purely experiencial.    
Our ego-less existential identity can only be experienced as our deepest, purest and truest human identity.  
Our true identity can also be called our pure being, or non-ego identity, or the core of our individuality. And our ego-identity consists of imaginations, ideas and conceptions, connected with our feelings and our being; but our pure being can only be experienced as one and indivisible . . . .  And also can be observed, that our feeling is more closely related to our being than our thoughts, imaginations, judgments, conceptions, and reasoning . . . . .   


Beyond software  
Although our true identity manifests in our physical body, it is not physical. It is not hardware (our brain), nor is it software (our thoughts), but even beyond that . . .       
Our existential identity can not be described in any objective terms, because it is not an object, and hence it cannot be described as such.  
Our true human identity can be observed as a subtle, and only experiencial and indes- cribable phenomenon, directly connected with our consciousness which enables us to be aware of it. However, our true identity can be experienced in a more or less defin- able mental state.  


Mental state of freedom  
Our existential or true identity can only be experienced in a totally positive state of being; totally free from any obsession, anger, fear, problems and other misery, and without any importance or attachment to our personalities or egos. In a state of being without any sense of self-importance or ego-centrism. In a totally relaxed mental state of freedom in the broadest sense.    
And as said already, only out of such a mental state one can experience true love, beauty, total orgasm or total happiness etc.  


Love and ego  
On the moment we experience true love our egos have become totally unimportant and totally forgotten; for we can love only out of our purest human essence and integrity.  
And if we experience love in a more or less egocentric state, then that love is also more or less inhibited.  
However the love that we may think to experience from a strongly obsessed egocentric state is just a need for love, or just imaginary, or often merely greed or sexual attrac- tion, or a combination of these . . .     


Obsessed or cleared  
To live in a modern capitalistic society means for many to live normally in a tense state of mind, obsessed by our egos, our ego-centrism, and all kinds of frustrated de- sires, obligations and unreached goals. And in an egocentric frustrated negative state of mind there is almost no space for any true human-friendliness, respect, empathy, love or happiness.    
However if we can learn to take a little distance and attain to a relaxed mental state of let go and inner clearedness, we can return a little to our true identity and experience more beauty, human-friendliness, love and happiness.    


Existential self-knowledge  
Awareness of our true human identity has to be seen as the most important part of our human intelligence, for it is the most realistic part of it . . . .  It is non-theoretical, and free of any rational assumption, and hence more realistic than any rational or scientific knowledge  . . . . .     
It means to be directly aware of our awareness, and to be aware of the nature and value of love and happiness, and awareness of their levels and barriers . . .     
From our true and existential identity we can become aware that love and happiness are the very highest values in our life, and basically in everybody's life.       


The function of our ego-identity  
Although our ego-identity is created in our brains, it is basically our outer identity, and in general our functional identity in our social environment.    
However we use this outer identity also to defend ourselves in our social environment, because from only our true identity we cannot defend our selves in a rational way, for it is not something rational. And hence our ego-identity is also used out of fear for vulne- rability in a hostile and aggressive egocentric environment.    
So our ego-identity and ego-centredness can also be seen as our outer hard shell, or wall, against hostile approaches of others.    
However those who are (more or less) aware of their true identity can basically (more or less) choose to be in either their ego- or true identity . . .   And the more we are aware of our true identity, the more it penetrates in our ego-identity . . .  


Our true identity as the basis of our moral identity      
From an empirical perspective can be clearly seen that awareness of our true, or non- ego identity can only go together with a morally positive ego-identity, for our true iden- tity also means integrity, and an identity of truth . . .    
And an identity of truth comes close to an empirical "true man identity", and it also creates an adherence to truth . . .    
In our daily life awareness of our true identity can only coexist with a moral, or morally positive identity; a subtle ego-identity, or a just empirical identity of integrity, human- friendliness, empathy, and other basic human virtues . . . And this creates a beha- viour that stays far within all universal moral standards.  
(see part ll)      
Hence, awareness of our true identity can also be seen as an extra and profound basis of a moral identity  . . .     





  

Sense of one's own dignity      
and self-esteem      



Human dignity      
Our human dignity can be seen as our human value, based on what we experience as our deepest human essence, our being, or (most) true identity, or truth.    
Or also, as our human value out of our human-friendliness and integrity towards other people or our society, or even our integrity towards humanity as a whole.  
And also can we see our human dignity as our human value out of our morally positive identity, and true- or good- man identity.    


Truth and sense of one's own dignity      
Also is important to see, that for a true sense of one's own dignity one also needs truth, veracity and integrity towards oneself.  
And for religious people also truth, veracity and integrity towards Allah, or God, or towards the Mystery or Origin of existence.       
But to be true also means to be always as much as possible on the side of truth; regardless if the truth is convenient or not . . .  And from this can be seen that an untrue man cannot have a sense of his own dignity  . . . . .  


Self-esteem        
Self-esteem can be seen as a positive judgment of oneself, and this is closely related to our ego and to our value.    
By nature basically every human being wants to be of some value; value for someone, for some people, for many people, or for humanity as a whole . . .  
And if we can see ourselves in such value we can feel o.k. with such an ego, and then there can be self-esteem. So our self-esteem is closely related to the quality of our identity; morally positive or not, positive creative or not, or, to being okay or not.  
But, the more we are aware of our true identity, our self-esteem can also be based in a sense of our own dignity . . .      
However also, in general, too much self-esteem tends to end up in egocentrism and arrogance . . .  


Self-value and false self-esteem        
Many people in the world move about in a delusion of high self-esteem, but deep down they have no sense of self-value . . .       
One can be very successful and wealthy in life, but at the same time one can live in a lack of self-value. And in particular this counts for the narcissistic and the more or less psychopathic people among us.    
We can ask ourselves the question, if we would die today, would we then leave this world as a better place than it was before, or not . . . Has our life in the end been posi- tive creative, or destructive, or just parasitical . . . Has it been of any value for others, or for our society, or for humanity or the future humanity, or not . . .      
Basic to understand here is, that self-esteem without a realistic and true self-value is futile and false  . . .       


False self-esteem      
Any (non-psychopathic) man whose self-esteem is based on power, respectability, fame, money or possessions is sooner or later going to see him or herself as a looser, for that self-esteem is not based on any true self-value. And this also explains the effect of it, of never enough . . . . .    


Self-value and narcissism        
As mentioned, we can have a high self-esteem and meanwhile have a feeling of low  
self-value. And a feeling of low self-value can make us depressed, feeling useless, and often even inferior. But we can also just feel unsatisfied and unhappy.    
A feeling of low self-value explains also the sensitive egos of many narcissistic people. For narcissism means an inflated ego and an exaggerated and fake self-esteem.    
Wealth and cultural conditioning has made many people to become (eventually subtle) narcissistic and to live in a fake self-esteem . . .    


Human desire and need for approval           
Human desire for approval is a very natural and very basic human desire for (social) value; a desire to be approved and valued by others. And it connects with a social desire for agreement, to create a sense of connectedness.       
Approval should be seen as a basic human need; it means a confirmation of value and connectedness, and so actually also of love.  
However the more frustrated and ego-centred we are, the less we tend to approve others; for the more frustrated and ego-centred we are, the less we experience love, and the less we can see the positive side or beauty of others . . . . .       
Ultimately true approval also contains the message " I love you " . . .       


Survival-mentality, lovelessness and addictions  
However, if everybody is frustrated and lives out of a loveless egocentric survival-men- tality, nobody values or approves anyone else, and everybody becomes even more egocentric and more and more needy and greedy . . .   And in that way a loveless needy and greedy society is created and established . . . . .    
Hence so many addictions to alcohol, drugs, cigarettes, food, collection, kleptomania, all kinds of possessions like cars, houses etc. etc.    
And many call it a consolation towards oneself . . .    


Need for one's own approval  
Our need for approval of others is directly connected with our own approval of ourselves and the quality of our identity.  
Self-approval means also self-value and self-esteem.  If we cannot approve our own behaviour or way of life, there must be a lack of self-esteem and healthy identity.       
And if we have a low (or fake) self-esteem, we are always in a big need for approval of others, and the love of others . . .    
However we can improve our self-esteem and self-approval by changing to a more social, moral and positive creative identity and mentality, and way of life . . .       


Our value for humanity      
Our true (self-) value can ultimately only be our value related to humanity; our value for humanity or the future of humanity, for in the end we are going to die, and humanity will continue to exist.    
And we could ask ourselves the basic question:  What can finally be the value of our life, if it has no value for humanity or for the future of humanity  . . . . .       
Anybody who has put morally positive children in this world has created a valuable part of humanity and its future, and anybody who creates value, services, well-being, or a positive education for others creates value for humanity and for the future of humanity.


Self-value as a universal basis for morality      
Sense of one's own dignity and self-esteem out of our value for others, our society, and humanity creates a human-friendly mentality and a human-friendly identity, which can be seen as a universal and religion-independent foundation of morality  . . . . .   
And approval by others or our knowledge of their approval can strengthen that identity and mentality.    





    

A positive mental state      



Freedom of choice      
Although many people may not be aware of it, basically every human has a freedom  
of choice for a positive or negative mental state to be in.    
And many have been living for so long time in a frustrated negative or hostile mental state and inner conflicts, that they are no more aware of it, and have forgotten how to change from a negative to a positive mental state.    
However it may be clear that for the realization of our highest human values like free- dom, peace, love and happiness our ability to be in a positive mental state is a basic condition.  


Ego, self-esteem, and mental tensions      
For our ability to be in a natural, positive, and mentally relaxed state of being is in the first place important a positive ego-identity; for a negative identity keeps us in a mental state of hostility and inner conflict.  
And for a positive mental state is also of basic importance our level of ego-importance or narcissism. This, because our ego-importance is at the centre of almost all desires, frustrations, and inner conflicts and negativity . . .         
A sense of our own dignity and self-esteem are also supportive of a positive mental state, for it takes away all kinds of mental tensions. And mental tensions inhibit a natural, relaxed and positive state of being.    


Avoidance of a negative way of thinking      
One of the most important aspects of our way of thinking is our adherence to truth  
and our realism. And this also avoids an exclusively negative way of thinking, which can lead us towards depression. Realism includes also to consider also the positive aspects of happenings in our life, and this allows us to take a little distance of the issues and to focus our attention on all other positive aspects of our life.       
And if there are painful events, then we can look for a solution of the problems they create, or we can move towards an acceptance of these painful events. However for  
a true acceptance is needed a surrender of our inflated ego, and to come to a natural human modesty . . .       


Mental training      
For many or maybe even most people who are living in egocentric survival-societies, a mental training may be needed to learn to be in a mentally positive state of being.       
Basically a training to free ourselves of all inner conflicts, stress, and mental tensions, and a "training" in mental relaxation.    
The easiest way to learn to be in a natural state of mental relaxation starts with a trai- ning in physical relaxation combined with a relaxing breath. A training in a physical relaxation can be the first step towards a relaxation of our brain and a positive state of being.    


Mental state of inner friendliness      
A key factor in this kind of physical and mental relaxation is our ability to concentrate on more and more physical relaxation, as well as on a relaxing breath, and on a men- tal attitude of total inner friendliness and inner integrity, which brings us also closer to our true human identity. And also a mental switch-over towards the imagination of a true inner laughter can help us here to come to a positive mental state.    
If one can make it a habit to train such relaxation for some 15 till 30 minutes on a daily basis, one's ability to attain to a positive mental state can often be regained within a few days or weeks.  


Experience of inner freedom      
If one attains in this relaxation to a state of total inner friendliness and inner integrity, one has also come to a state of inner clearedness and inner freedom as previously described.       
Once one has learned by such training to attain to a totally positive mental state, one has found back one's ability to freely change one's negative state of mind to a totally positive state of mind. But of course still more or less dependent of one's life circum- stances.       





  

Negative states of mind      



Frustration anger and identity change  
Frustration and anger make us very egocentric and respectless, and our empathy and mental clarity get lost.    
And also, in a state of anger and frustration we can see our selves in a totally different identity than in a positive state of mental relax or happiness. In general in an authori- tarian, or fighters identity, and our normally morally positive identity may be compro- mised, or even be lost . . . This may happen in a situation of strong anger and frustra- tion, but for some it may already happen in lower levels of frustration; in case of a weak ,or underdeveloped moral understanding and identity . . .    
And this is also the case with many criminals; although they still have some morality in their identity, it can easily get lost. And it is the same as what happens to some criminals who in rage or extreme frustration suddenly turn over to a secondary malicious, or evil criminal identity, and after their crime continue in their previous identity.   Or, also, because of the crime once committed, choose to stay in that evil criminal identity.    


Jealousy and hatred    
Out of a mental state of frustration, anger and egocentric possessiveness, or fear to lose, we can also easily become jealous, or hateful.  
Out of frustration anger and egocentrism we then start to demonize a person, and in that way we repress our empathy and respect, and next we can start hating that demonized person.    
However, for many this happens not only in a state of extreme anger, frustration or possessiveness; it also can happen in their "normal" state of being.    
And if this is our own case, then this can also tell us something about our "normal" state of being . . . . .  


Anger out of old frustrations  
Many people move about in their life with an unconscious burden of old frustrations  
and old anger out of frustrating and painful experiences with other people in the past.  
And these are always negative experiences which one never has come to terms with or which never got taken or accepted.    
These are in general cases of experienced harm or pain caused by others, like neglect abandoning, mistreatment, abuse, or other respectless hostility, or eventual fight, and when forgiving or reconciliation has never happened.  
The only solution for such old frustration and anger is to come to terms with it by acceptation and/or forgivingness out of understanding.  However, the more egocentric  
or narcissistic we are, the more difficult this will be
 . . .     


Anger and diminished accountability  
Most people know the experience that in a state of anger we can do things which we some time after regret. Anger makes us blind; it diminishes our consciousness and our ability to understand.  
Anger diminishes our awareness of what we are doing, and in our way of thinking we lose our ability to see things in perspective. In a state of anger we tend to think in only terms of black and white. And in a state of anger we become very egocentric and tend to demonize, and we feel a strong urge to violence . . .  
And seeing this, we have to acknowledge that anybody in anger is basically in a state of diminished consciousness and diminished accountability . . .    


Vengeance and diminished accountability  
Anger and frustration are also the most basic cause of desire for vengeance.  
If we lose a loved one by murder or so, then there is going to be a constant longing back to that beloved person. And this is a desire which is continuously frustrated by the thought that we will never see that person again. This frustration can cause then sadness or anger. If anger, then we start to demonize the culprit, and focus our anger on that demonized culprit.    
And anger also creates an urge to violence, as well in our thinking as in our behaviour.
Our natural reaction of vengeance comes out of that anger, demonizing, and urge to violence . . .  
However also here we have to acknowledge, that anybody in a state of anger is in a state of diminished consciousness and diminished accountability . . . . .    
And hence also any avenger is someone in that state of mind
 . . .     


Vengeance defined        
Vengeance can be defined as an act of aggression out of anger, because of feeling an insulted ego-identity, by a demonized person who has caused a harm or loss to us.   


No "vengeance instinct"  
The naturalness of our vengeance reaction has brought many people to the idea that there is in every human a natural "vengeance instinct".    
And this misunderstanding has by some also been used to justify death penalty.    
However this "vengeance instinct" is nothing but an urge to aggression towards a culprit out of frustration, anger and demonizing . . .    


Vengeance and culture    
Probably all cultures in the world of today accept vengeance as a just answer upon an offence. (Even in Christianity, in spite of the fact that vengeance is totally opposed to the teachings of Jesus Christ . . .)    
However in countries with a rule of law personal vengeance is not allowed, there ven- geance is only allowed to the court.  


Blood revenge      
In some traditional cultures without a rule of law, and in low populated areas where family honour is a basic, blood revenge often is a general practice to maintain that family honour.  However, this means revenge based in a collective egocentrism . . .    
Revenge for an insult of the family; it often means the killing of an innocent person of another family, and creates revenge on revenge. Blood revenge is a principle; the principle of war . . . . .  
    

Revenge and feelings of justice      
Our feelings of justice are based on what we experience as right or as wrong. Just is that what we see as right, and unjust what as wrong.    
Unjust is when someone can get away with causing harm or loss, or committing an offence or a crime to us or someone else.    
The culprit has to pay back or repair the damage; for only then there can be justice.    
However, if this is not possible, we get frustrated and angry . . .    
Now we translate the offence as an insult of our ego, our "honour"; for anger makes us more egocentric . . .    
The prevailing idea of the justice of revenge comes out of the idea that a culprit cannot be allowed to get away with his crime.  However within developed and civilized states with a rule of law there are also more intelligent, just, and satisfying ways than revenge to solve that problem.  
(see part lll, Justice law and punishment)  


The "sweetness" of revenge      
In the eyes of a victim in a state of anger and diminished consciousness the idea of justice of revenge comes out of the idea to be insulted and humiliated by the culprit. However, by a demonized culprit . . .  ; and revenge means humiliation of the culprit, and also one's own victory over the demonized culprit.  
The idea to be insulted and humiliated arises out of egocentrism caused by frustration and anger; and this egocentrism also causes the desire for victory over the demonized culprit . . .    
The idea of justice of revenge, combined with the desire for victory over a demonized culprit explains the general conviction of the "sweetness" of revenge . . . So in the end "sweetness" of revenge can be seen as based on an egocentric desire for victory . . . However, this imagined "sweetness" appears in reality often to be nothing more than just an egocentric self-suggestive delusion, if there is no compensation possible for an inflicted harm or loss . . .    



Thesis             The idea of sweetness of revenge is based on the    
                   assumption of justice of revenge, and on an egocentric     
                      self-suggestive delusion of victory over a culprit.     



Vengeance and choice for distance      
Understanding our state of anger, frustration and desire for vengeance can help us to handle that state of mind. The more we are aware of a negative state of mind and its causes, the more our freedom of choice to get out of that negative state of mind.  
To get out, by learning to take a little distance from the causes, to be more objective, and to be more aware of our demonizing, and by a change of focus of our mind and to move towards a more free and independent point of view and state of mind. And then   if no other choice, to move towards acceptance of the facts.  


Anger hatred and vengeance               
The more angry or frustrated we are, the more easily we start hating, and the more easily we develop desires for vengeance. And mostly desires for vengeance also create feelings of hatred in us, but if we don't keep on to that hatred, our desires for vengeance will weaken.    
However, to move about in desires for vengeance and hatred will diminish our human- friendliness, or can make it hypocritical.    


Anger malevolence and hypocrisy               
Anger, frustration and egocentrism can also easily create malevolence, mendacity and hypocrisy, which basically also means human-hostility; and also a lack of respect, integrity, truth and sense of dignity. And in general it also means untruth and lying to oneself . . .    However, basically an untrue man is an enemy to himself  . . .       
Hypocrisy seems to many a more or less harmless trait, but it is often part of a more or less narcissistic or psychopathic mentality . . .    
And hypocrisy within our social network, or even intimate relationship, means an atti- tude of detachment and distance, and basically hostility . . .       





    

Narcissism and psychopathy      



Narcissism             
Narcissism is in general characterized by a very egocentric self-focussed mentality, and a (basically unstable) arrogant identity of importance or superiority.    
However also by a repressed, blocked, or underdeveloped empathy, by an unwilling- ness to see and identify with the feelings or needs of others, showing in an indiffe- rence to feelings of others, and a lack of empathy-based human respect.  
Because of a strong egocentrism a narcissist is very selfish, and has only selfish goals, and often a greedy and exploitative mentality, with a tendency to deceiving or lying, often for self-importance and out of a strong individual survival-mentality.       
Often they use their selective or diminished empathy for manipulation and to be in control, and often with a lack of conscience and unconsciously harming others.       
A mentality of high fake self-esteem, but with a low sense of realistic self-value, and hence desires for positions of power or fame and desires for (the rush) of self-impor- tance and self-value, admiration, approval and attention.       
Narcissists have a very sensitive, and often fake or inflated ego-identity and can be very sensitive for insults or imagined insults.  (low sense of self-value)     


Other traits of narcissists           
Very egocentric and often arrogant, and they consider themselves higher than others and tend to inflate their talents and achievements. Often they suppose that they are entitled to special treatment, and they always need admiration and approval.    
Also they tend to (a subtle) bragging, and can feel easily insulted or humiliated, but may often not show that; but they have intense and unstable emotions and are basi- cally very sensitive to criticism or defeat, and may react with rage and next enmity.
They are also competitive and obsessed with success, power, or their intelligence or appearance, and often they set unrealistic high goals, and tend to see no boundaries. And they can easily take advantage of others to achieve their goals, and often they think of others as if they were just objects, and may show no gratitude nor remorse.  
Also they tend to suppose that others will immediately go along with what they want.
And often they may act to be very special and beyond all categories, and think to be only understood by other special people. However they themselves are often unable  
to understand the feelings and needs of others . . .    


More or less narcissistic           
Especially in prosperous capitalistic societies many people are living in a more or less narcissistic mentality; and often also (more or less) without the most negative aspects of respectlessness, manipulativeness, exploitativeness, deceitfulness and mendacity.
These socially most negative aspects of narcissism are in general based on a lack of a morally positive identity and a lack of basic moral understanding . . .    
Also important to see is that there are also narcissists with a basically high empathic ability which is just blocked out by a very strong egocentrism, individual survival-men- tality, or by a subtle hatred towards (seemingly) more successful people.  


Pathological and criminal narcissism           
When someone's narcissism has developed to a pathological or even criminal level, this has happened because he or she started hating other people, because of feeling frustrated or hurt by their seeming superiority and one's own feeling of inferiority.  
Hating other people because of frustration or anger creates hostility, dominance and aggression, as well as eventually violence and criminal behaviour.    
However not all criminal narcissists hate other people, their criminal acts may also be caused by simply a very strong egocentrism and blocked off empathy and respect.    


Narcissism with evilness             
Narcissism may in combination with a secondary malicious or evil ego-identity (out of conditioning and/or old anger and frustration) create an incidental or reoccurring crimi- nal, homicidal or psychopathic behaviour.  
In the past such narcissists were often categorized as psychopaths. And in the past narcissism was in general also seen as one of the basic traits of psychopaths. This, because of the self-confident superior ego-identity of psychopaths.    


Causes of narcissism             
Although there may also be some genetic predisposition for narcissism, most likely  
it is mainly caused by conditioning, culture and life circumstances.  
And in the first place very egocentric or narcissistic parents can be seen as a cause; and excessive approval, admiration and pampering by narcissistic parents, who want their children to be very talented or special for their own self-value and image.  
This basically means a conditioning to an identity of importance. And when next in a later stage also much disapproval, condemnation and lack of parental support and approval are experienced, then this may cause a new negative self-image and feelings of inferiority; but also an egocentric survival-mentality, and at the same time a strong desire for the importance, approval and admiration of the past.  
However also separation of small babies from mothers in a separate room, or lack of mother-contact and the experience of abandonment may cause the development of a strong individual survival-mentality and a strong egocentrism.       
Other causes of feelings of low self-worth and a strong egocentric survival-mentality can also be neglect, frequent condemnation, abuse, feelings of rejection, and abandon- ment.       


Psychopathy             
Psychopaths live out of a very egocentric insensitive superior and ruthless ego-identity and a very strong individual survival-mentality, however often also out of a secondary normal or charm-identity, to manipulate others.       
In general they live out of a solitary human- and society-hostile survival-mentality, and they are extremely selfish, and have only selfish and power-oriented goals.       
They live with an (often consciously) blocked empathy and hence have no conscience or sense of guilt, and live in total absence of any natural human respect.    
Also they often use a diminished and selective empathy and theory of mind for mani- pulation and deception, and have an uninhibited possessive and exploitative mentality.
Psychopaths use manipulation and deception to experience power and control, and are always in search for positions of power and control.    
They are lacking a moral identity and are totally unaware of their true identity, and un- able to experience love, and unable of lasting relationships. And they are dominant and almost fearless because of low levels of cortisol and high levels of testosterone.    
When they have a criminal or evil identity they may relive old anger and frustration, and may use rage to control and abuse people and be cruel and sadistic.       


Psychopathy, Physical and mental      
Psychopaths could in a physical sense also be defined as people with high levels of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, and low levels of cortisol and oxytocin in their blood. However then from a psychological point of view has also to be added, a psy- chopathic identity and way of thinking, and a basic lack of moral understanding.      
And although the physical aspects are rather clear and seem to be decisive, basically the mental aspects can also be decisive on the physical aspects. This in the view of the neuro-plasticity of the human brain.    


Non-criminal psychopaths             
Non-criminal psychopaths live in a lawful identity and have no distinct evil identity, however are equally power-oriented, ruthless, egocentric, manipulative, deceptive and exploitative and eventually unreliable.    


More or less psychopathic mentality      
A more or less psychopathic mentality can be seen as a lower level of psychopathic mentality; and eventually more or less missing some traits like mendacity, or a total lack of moral identity, or consciously enjoying the pain or misery of someone else etc.
However the most basic traits like a very egocentric and more or less ruthless menta- lity, and a low or easily blocked empathy, and a basic lack of human respect and a weak conscience are characteristic. And also low fear, strong possessiveness and a desire for dominance, power and use of power have to be seen as characteristic. And also a more or less society-hostile and/or human-hostile way of thinking can belong to such a mentality, and hence also often some tendency towards criminality. And all of this stimulated by individual survival-cultures.       
However, also a lack of feelings of human connectedness and a lack of ability to expe- rience love, beauty, gratitude or true friendship are part of this mentality.       
Just as psychopathy is it caused by prenatal hormonal influences, a lack of security, love and social connectedness in early development or later, and also by cultural and media-conditioning, and some genetic predisposition.       


Psychopathy and narcissism compared           
1  Psychopaths have low fear because of low levels of cortisol and high testosterone.  
Narcissists have in general normal fear reactions.  
2  Psychopaths have a strong and stable superior ego-identity out of conviction.  
Narcissists have a weak unstable and fake superior ego-identity, out of need for approval and admiration.  
3  Psychopaths have low, or often no emotions (blocked off, put out of circuit)    
Narcissists can have strong emotions which are often strongly suppressed.    
4  Psychopaths are consciously ruthless and merciless,  deliberately harming others.
Narcissists are indifferent to others and mostly  unconsciously harming others.    
5  Psychopaths are basically human- and society-hostile.  
Narcissists are in general human- and society-indifferent.    
6  Psychopaths have a superior power-identity or a superior  evil/criminal  power-identity.
Narcissists have basically a fake superior importance-identity for admiration.  
7  Psychopaths are consciously immoral or in fact anti-moral.    
Narcissists act in general unconsciously immoral.    
However both are very egocentric, lacking empathy, and have a strong individual sur- vival-mentality, lack of guilt and conscience, lack of natural human respect, and are manipulative, deceptive, mendacious, exploitative, and enjoy power and control.       


Psychopathy and narcissism combined           
Very few people will be textbook examples of a psychopath; there is always a certain level of psychopathy, and also a certain level of narcissism.  
And especially semi- or low level psychopaths can have also a more or less narcis- sistic mentality. And powerful narcissists can also move towards psychopathy, if living in superficial relationships, keeping oxytocin levels low, and testosterone levels high, and more and more enjoying their use of power.    
Many or most people in the world will carry a combination of different levels of both.  
There can be narcissists with a basically high empathic ability which is blocked out by a very strong egocentrism and wrong education, and narcissists with a basically low empathic ability also blocked out by such education. The latter may tend more to- wards psychopathy.    


Evolution narcissism and dominance             
Narcissism may from an evolutionary point of view be a side effect of humans coming in a position of power, which was not possible in our prehistoric small bands where all people knew each other, and were living in more or less egalitarian structures.     
Dominant human leadership has not come in existence until egalitarian communities became so big that they became unsurveyable and had to be structured and organized This must have been the historic point of development of first distinct human narcis- sism; because once leaders became very important, those close to them as well, and a new separate social structure developed, and natural social and democratic advisor- leadership changed into a dominant leadership of a group of most important people. . . And still today we can see unimportant people coming to power becoming more and more narcissistic, and those who are put under power becoming modest.    
Narcissistic social dominance is not as much a basic human drive, as a by egocentric mass-culture created social derailment . . . . .  
And the fact that many males of other social mammals show a competitive dominant behaviour does not yet mean that this is also the basic human "social" drive.  
In fact, a dominance drive is basically a primitive anti -social drive  . . .    


Dominance drive against social human nature             
In general our so called social dominance drive can be seen as mainly a cultural nar- cissistic derailment of humanity, created by culture, authoritarian/narcissistic parents, and the fear to get dominated by egocentric and narcissistic individuals in our ego- centricized individual survival-societies.    
And as put in the beginning, humans are the most social beings on this earth, and the more or less monogamous nature of man is different from many other  more or less social animals, where one strong dominant male with high testosterone and low cor- tisol fertilizes all females, and where is a continuous competition between high testo- sterone males.    
In the ancient past all monogamous human males must have respected each other, for they needed each other for survival; and competition, dominance and hostility were against friendship, cooperation and loyalty,  which was badly needed for their vulnera- ble nomadic savannah survival  . . .     


Male dominance over women             
As well our male as female ancient ancestors must have lived with high levels of corti- sol and oxytocin, because humans living in the savannah are very vulnerable, and this must have been the reason why humans have evolved to super-social beings.  Only highly empathic, very alert and cooperative humans can have survived, multiplied, and evolved in the unprotected circumstances of the savannah.    
High levels of cortisol and oxytocin means low levels of testosterone, and hence low dominant behaviour, and high empathy, respect and loyalty  . . . . .  
So to our ancient ancestors even male dominance over women must have been very moderate. For although males had a higher testosterone and were stronger, they were dependent on women and women on them. They needed each other and must have valued and respected each other (high oxytocin).
And there was no need for any dominance, but only for collaboration and survival; dominance means humiliation, and creates only mutual hostility and less chance of survival . . . . .   


Testosterone levels and social dominance        
Some three million years ago humans chimpanzees and bonobos are said to have the same ancestors, and we can only speculate on whether these ancestors have been a social species or not. However from the moment on, that our far ancestors became a social and monogamous species, social dominance was a very wrong trait, which must have been more or less eliminated by natural selection.
And also the low calorie food and often food scarcity of our ancient ancestors created low testosterone levels and high levels of cortisol and oxytocin in them, which must have made them even more social and empathic. For, the lower our testosterone, the higher our oxytocin level which is needed to experience empathy and to be social.       
However in our modern rich societies with an overflow of high calorie food every day, we tend to live with higher levels of testosterone and lower cortisol, which makes us less social and basically more psychopathic . . . Hence a true social dominance drive of today is comparable to that of monkeys and other mammals. And  by our ancient social ancestors it would have been seen as a primitive monkey behaviour  . . .    


True nature of social dominance drive        
Not narcissism should be seen as the nature of a social dominance drive, but a more or less psychopathic mentality. For, characteristic for psychopaths are high levels of testosterone and low levels of cortisol and oxytocin. And high levels of testosterone suppress cortisol and oxytocin levels and empathic ability. Hence psychopaths are known for their urge to power and fearlessness and ruthlessness.    
Only high testosterone/cortisol rates can be seen as a real drive to dominance, and not a narcissistic strategic act to compensate for low self-esteem.       
Although narcissists may show low levels of oxytocin and hence low empathic ability, their dominance is basically a strategic choice.    
But as a psychopathic and also more or less psychopathic mentality basically means human-hostility and lack of empathy, a social dominance drive should basically be seen as an  antisocial  mentality  . . .       


Psychopathy narcissism and evolution             
In the social communities of our ancient ancestors modern psychopaths could not have survived, because of the continuous very close social interactions and social control, and anybody behaving from an antisocial ego-identity or secondary antisocial ego-identity would get distrusted and expelled. This, because for cooperation in  
dangerous circumstances reliability, friendship and integrity must have been of basic importance.    
And also modern narcissists with their extreme egocentrism and unconscious respect- lessness would have been soon locked-out and expelled because of their unreliability.


Narcissism as a cultural derailment        
From the perspective of the social nature of our ancient ancestors, presumably corres- ponding with our genetical inheritage, also our  more or less  narcissistic or  more or less  psychopathic mentality of today has basically to be seen as a global cultural derailment into a subtle widespread mental disease, and as a threatening of valuable evolutionary developed social human qualities . . .    
Hence our  more or less  narcissistic or psychopathic mentality could also be called: a neo-human emotional and identity disorder, because of a lack of empathy and human connectedness, and an egocentric, antisocial or socially indifferent identity . . .       


Narcissism as a contagious disorder        
Narcissists are obsessed by the desire to be valued and admired and to be higher or better than others. This makes them to cling to possessions, power and fame, and to try to make others feel lower than them.  
However, other more or less narcissistic people who feel lower than them get stimu- lated to copy that narcissistic behaviour, and start also to cling more and more to possessions, power and fame, and so on.     
From this point of view narcissism and a more or less narcissistic mentality can be seen as a contagious mental and social disorder . . .    


Narcissism and true identity           
The more egocentric and narcissistic we are, the more untrue our identity, and the   less our integrity, and the less our human-friendliness and empathy, and the less our ability to experience love, beauty and happiness, and the more superficial and boring our life . . .
Only when we become aware of these fundamental disadvantages of narcissism and its basis of egocentrism we can learn to control, diminish and handle it.     


Remedy against narcissism      
The very awareness of our narcissistic traits and the negative consequences of it may diminish already our narcissistic behaviour.  
And a morally positive identity and awareness of our most true human identity are a basic medication against all human narcissism, and also against the development of a psychopathic identity and mentality.  
A social and morally positive identity containing modesty, empathy, realism, loyalty responsibility awareness and truth, and a positive creative identity create self-value and self-esteem in us, which is against all feelings of inferiority and narcissism. And the moral virtue of integrity creates truth and a sense of dignity in us.    
And for all (more or less) narcissistic characters it is also important to understand and see the value of this kind of identity in perspective of humanity, and to see the true  
self-value and sense of dignity that creates. For a sense of true self-value it is needed to see our value for other people, or for our society, and so ultimately also for humanity and even the future of humanity . . .  





    

Machiavellianism      



Might makes right      
Machiavellianism can be seen as a power based megalomanic way of thinking, and based on the old Roman phrase: "What is legitimate for Jupiter is not legitimate for the ox", or "Gods may do what cattle may not". And this basically means megalomania and extreme arrogance, and "Might makes right". Hence Machiavellianism is very attractive to all narcissists and (more or less) psychopaths.   
It is an antisocial, egocentric and strategic way of thinking, out of a narcissistic and egocentric survival-mentality, and in totally ignoring human morality, and often even abusing the morality of others . . .  


Power-orientedness      
In Machiavellianism anything moral or immoral is allowed to stay in power, or to gain more power. And it basically means to be obsessed by greed and power. In Machia- vellianism possessions and power are the only values . . .   In fact the same only values as of psychopaths and many narcissists.    
A cold strategic and egocentric calculating manipulativeness, cunningness, and often unreliability and misuse of the positive attitude of others are here the means to main- tain or gain power.  
Machiavellianism can often be seen as more or less the basic way of thinking and behaving of many narcissistic, and more or less psychopathic career-politicians  . . . 


Identity and personality      
Machiavellianism means a basically unemotional megalomanic "higher than thou" - identity, and it means an excluding egocentrism.  
In fact it means to live in a power position out of an exaggerated self-importance and delusion of superiority and to be beyond the normal categories of people.    
This creates a delusively changed morality characterized by a misuse of power and the falseness of abuse of the morality of others.    


Lack of moral understanding      
Machiavellianism is based on a basic lack of moral understanding because of a lack  
of empathy and an almost mechanical blocking off of empathy and feelings of human connectedness.  
And in fact the very conditioning of egocentrism and might makes right prevents or diminishes all basic moral development and understanding.    
Hence all authoritarian education conditions children to a more or less Machiavellian mentality; and hence many see might makes right as a more or less legitimate men- tality for anybody in a position of power  . . . . .  


Machiavellianism, an antisocial personality disorder      
Machiavellianism is in psychology seen as an antisocial personality disorder.    
It is characterized by megalomania, manipulativeness cunningness and unreliability, and a detached unemotional cold selfishness and a pure instrumentality, out of ego- centrism and blocked off empathy.    
And in fact it can more or less be seen as a psychopathic mentality . . .    


Psychopaths and Machiavellianism      
Machiavellianism is especially attractive to all high testosterone young people with a more or less psychopathic mentality, for Machiavellianism is always connected with a position of power.  
Basically Machiavellianism could also be seen as a way of thinking adopted by people with a more or less psychopathic mentality, or as an addition to a basically psycho- pathic mentality.     
Although the personality or self-image of Machiavellianists is in general different of that of psychopaths, their traits are in general very similar.    


Narcissists and Machiavellianism      
Machiavellianism is also very attractive to (more or less) narcissists, for it confirms a high personal importance.       
And it could also be seen as a narcissism with an additional way of thinking.    
Especially because the high competitiveness of narcissism is also seen as a basic aspect of Machiavellianism.    


Machiavellianism as a psychological trait      
In psychology Machiavellianism is also seen as a person's tendency to manipulate and deceive others for personal gain, which basically just means a lack of a morally positive identity (or super-ego), and the mentality to block off one's empathy, like in a (more or less) psychopathic mentality.    
In fact Machiavellianism can also be seen as based on a lack of moral conditioning and moral understanding, and a lack of a moral identity . . .    


"Machiavellian intelligence"      
In the past in politics Machiavellianism was also called "Machiavellian intelligence".  
Meant was an egocentric power-oriented unscrupulous "intelligence" in the sense of slyness and cunningness to misuse the vulnerability of trust, integrity or basic human- friendliness of others.  
In general it was meant in a political sense, where political power was seen as an ideal and where manipulative and powerful leaders were idolized.  
However in spite of our current psychological knowledge still many people today think from a basically Machiavellian "intelligence".  
This because we have to be smart, and if there is a lack of moral understanding smart- ness can easily change into slyness and cunningness.  
And Machiavellian "intelligence" can basically only be seen as the "intelligence" of pathological narcissists and psychopaths  . . .       


More or less Machiavellianism      
In the same way as everybody can be more or less narcissistic and/or psychopathic we can also be more or less Machiavellian in our way of thinking.  
Basically an antisocial and pathological way of thinking and living, creating misery for oneself and for others; and also in the case of more or less . . .  
Often a more or less Machiavellian mentality also shows in an idolizing of Machiavel- lian politicians.    
E.g. many people more or less agree with the immoral acts of politicians if it is for the sake of the economy, power, or image of their nation  . . . . .  





  

Idolization      



Idolization and connectedness      
All over the world people tend to idolize positive respectful and empathetic leaders and pop-stars in particular. Those who support our way of thinking, and understand our desires and problems, and create trust and feelings of human connectedness.    
And many young people live in an unconscious desire for a positive human connected- ness because of unhappiness with their often negative hostile or boring and egocentric survival environment.    
Our tendency to idolize may evolutionary come forth out of evolutionary developed desires for safety harmony and connectedness, or out of the desire to be in a loving or positive human relationship, and in this sense also more or less out of wishful thinking.


Social group connectedness      
The desire for connectedness may basically also be a desire for a social connected- ness with an equally thinking social group, which is often missing in huge egocentric and individualized survival-societies. Hence idolization often makes idolizers part of the social group of idolizers and followers. And as often seen, idolizers can often literally follow their idol or leader.  


Power of idols      
An idolized singer or pop-artist can in a certain sense also be seen as some kind of leader, in the sense of a leader of opinion vision or taste etc. And in that sense idols also have a certain power.  
However this kind of leadership and power has nothing to do with any social domi- nance drive or narcissism. Idolization is based on feelings of harmony or feelings of connectedness, and as soon as idols show arrogance or narcissism they may start losing their popularity among the more sincere and modest following.  


Responsibility of idols      
All idolized people and leaders should be aware of their responsibility; responsibility for their leadership, and responsibility for their teachings and the educational messages of their songs, acts, and also personal behaviour.    
Being idolized gives power and power can create egocentrism, arrogance and narcis- sism and unawareness of responsibility.    
Hence an old wisdom says that power corrupts . . .    


Leadership dictatorship and idolization      
So by nature humans tend to idolize respectful positive leaders. Dictators however are in general basically egocentric, and easily become narcissistic or even Machiavellian and then also power oriented and oppressive; and so they are basically the opposite of leaders, and not so respectful and empathic.    
Dictators basically need the support of followers, and most dictators of the past have understood this, and did their best to create a positive image of themselves to get idolized.    





  

Religiousness and religion        



Religiousness and mystery      
Throughout human evolution humans have felt subjected to the powers and incompre- hensible nature of existence. And lack of knowing and understanding the true nature of existence and of their own existence has in many humans created a desire to get in harmony with the powers, or with the ultimate power of existence.  
And also for many their incomprehension has created a desire to know, or to get in touch with the mystery of existence or the ultimate origin of existence.    


Religion and idolization      
Besides submission and desire for harmony, for many people religion has also an aspect of idolization in the sense of desire for an imaginary personal connectedness, belonging and safety, and desire to love.       
Hence many people tend to live with the imagination of a  personal  God, or also of personal Gods.    
However also many live with the concept of an unimaginable God, independent of  
all worlds, and so also independent of our world of imagination.    


Religion and its social aspect      
All organized religions also contain an important social aspect; the experience of unity in a big group of equally thinking people.  
This experience of unity and also of love and peace creates also feelings of safety, and can also be seen as an experience of our super social human nature.  
However, from a basic religious point of view our super social human nature could also be seen as a basically natural religious phenomenon . . .    


The true nature of existence and her origin      
From scientific observations and calculations scientists have concluded that the whole of the universe is moving away from one point in the universe, suggesting to have come forth from one place of origin.    
And according to our common logic and understanding the deepest and true nature of existence can only have come forth from the origin of existence.    
But any cause or origin in existence is time-related; for any cause in existence is the effect of a previous cause. However, except the ultimate cause.    
The ultimate cause of the whole of existence cannot be time-related, because on the moment of origin of existence there was nothing previous to be related with. So the nature of the ultimate origin of existence can only be timeless  . . .     


Assumption of ultimate cause      
If we cannot accept the assumption of the concept of a first or ultimate cause or origin of existence, we have to accept the assumption of an infinite chain of cause and effect, which however is less attractive because there is no reason for such assumption.  
However the strong likelihood of an initial "big bang" clearly points in the direction of an ultimate cause or origin of existence . . . . .   
The reason why it is difficult to accept an ultimate cause is that our common logic is based on a time-related causality; every cause must have a previous cause . . .
However, the big bang and the evolving universe suggest something else . . .


Continuous origin      
As concluded before, if we assume an ultimate origin then this origin can not be time- related. But if it is not time-related, then it can also not be part of our human logic, for our human logic is time-related.  However, unless that origin is a continuity; which means that existence is in a continuous process of being renewed by her continuous origin in the continuous "now" of existence . . .  
And if that origin is continuously present in the now, then it can also be said that the very deepest and true nature of existence is her origin . . . . . ; always present in the now, and totally independent of time and our time-related human logic
 
.  . .     


Time and mind  
Time exists only in our memory and in our rational way of thinking, and not in the reality of existence; for in the reality of existence it is always now . . . ; in the reality  of existence it is never yesterday, and never tomorrow . . .    
So also from this point of view the very deepest and true nature of existence can not be time-related, and hence also not understood in terms of human time-logic . . . . (!) 


Origin and belief      
If we believe that the origin of existence is also her deepest and true nature, and that the big bang itself is the ultimate origin of existence, then the deepest and true nature of existence must also be the continuity of the big bang . . .  
And if we believe that before or in the big bang God is the ultimate origin of existence, then the deepest or true nature of existence must also be a continuously omnipresent God.  And this fits with the belief of many religions that God is everywhere.  
And this continuous origin and very deepest or true nature of existence could also be called: the Very Essence of existence, or the Ultimate Reality, or Ultimate Truth . . .  


Our very deepest human nature      
Also according to our common logic and understanding the ultimate origin of the whole has also to be the origin of any part of it.    
And any human being is part of the whole of existence; so our deepest and true nature is also the deepest and true nature of the whole of existence . . .  And if the deepest and true nature of existence is her origin, then that origin is also our very deepest and true nature  . . . ; and also this fits with the belief of many religions that God is every- where. However it is understandable, that only out of the truest part of our being, out of being in our most true identity and in a mindless and timeless state of being, totally free of any imagination or thought, it can be possible to get in touch with our very deepest and true nature.      
As well meditation as prayer has brought many people in the world to experiences beyond time and imagination, and to religious experiences.    


Imaginary or existential      
Religion can basically be defined as a belief, desire, or experience of connectedness or oneness with the Origin of existence, or the Ultimate Reality, or the Deepest Nature or Very Essence of existence.    
However if not just a superficial belief, religion can be experienced on an imaginary, or on an existential level.  
Existential, if it is about a timeless experience of connectedness or oneness with our very deepest human nature, the Mystery of existence, or the Origin of existence, or with the Ultimate Truth. By its nature this is bound to be an inexpressible experience, for it is beyond time and imagination. However, to point in a direction, it has been des- cribed by many as an experience of inexpressible love, bliss, truth, or light, etc.     
And on an imaginary level, if it is about our imaginary relationship with our imaginary Origin of existence etc. However, as soon as love is experienced here, this imaginary level could have changed into a timeless and existential level . . .    


Atheists and peak experiences           
Also an atheist can in the course of his or her life out of his or her most true identity experience inexpressible love, beauty, happiness or gratitude, or even get an inner experience of connectedness with the mystery of the very essence of existence.    
For, if out of his or her most true identity in a spontaneous state of mindlessness and timelessness, an experience of love, beauty or gratitude of also an atheist can become so profound that it is far beyond any imagination and expression.    
And a religious person could see such an experience as a truly religious experience.  
But an atheist most likely would never use that expression, for it is not his or her way of thinking. But in the end it's just about a choice of words for one and the same . . .  


Organized religions and interpretation      
Most organized religions of the past are based on a rigid and sharply defined dogmatic system of belief, however basically attuned to an understanding and knowledge of people of an ancient past.    
And also is there always an uncertainty of originality of ancient religious scriptures.  
Hence many realistic contemporary religious people tend to interpret their religion in a careful way and to see things in perspective.       
E.g. the geocentric assumption and premises of the Tanakh or Bible in Judaism and Christianity became interpreted as not to be taken too literally, and to be seen in per- spective of their historic time of record.  


Religions and evolution      
Any religion can be translated interpreted and explained as well in a traditional way as in accord with contemporary intelligence and knowledge.  
If we can see our religion in perspective of attunement to people of a certain time, then anything of it contradicting modern science, knowledge or insight can be seen in per- spective, and then religious people can focus more on the basics or essence of their religion.       
And then a "big bang" or also Darwin's theory of evolution needs not to be a problem.  
Especially for Islamic and Christian people the theory of evolution needs not to be a problem if we can see Allah or God as the Origin of existence, including evolution and the "big bang" and anything that whenever existed . . .    


The process of evolution      
The process of evolution can be observed all over the earth as a fact of life in the adap- tation of all forms of life and also of human life to their environment, and in the inherita- bility of these adaptations.  
A very simple example is the human skin colour of people living for many generations on higher latitudes with a skin exposure to less sunlight, and their lighter skin colour and advanced ability to synthesize vitamin D from little sunlight.    
However such a factual observation of evolution needs not to contradict the creation of the earth and life on earth by God or Allah. Many religious people explicitly believe that God or Allah continuously creates and shapes existence and life on earth, and then also evolution. And from that perspective God or Allah can even be seen as the driving Force of evolution . . .  


Contradictions in religious sources    
Regarding interpretation of religious sources, contradictions or inconsistencies with their most basic teachings should always be explained or translated with care, for they might eventually indicate unknown historic alterations, modifications, additions, or even intentional falsifications . . .  
For instance: any Ultimate Reality of absolute or infinite love, or infinite compassion cannot be at the same time an angry, revengeful and anthropomorphic personality with unreliable or malicious human traits . . .    
Or for instance: a monotheistic God-concept with a Son who is also God, etc.  


Function of contradictions in religious sources    
Finding contradictions in religious sources needs not necessarily to mean that one should criticize or take distance from one's religion, but contradictions could also be seen as a trial, test or training-opportunity, to judge and understand basic from addi- tional, wrongly translated, or eventually falsified. So as an encouragement to investi- gation and distinction of basic, secondary, and dubious information in our religious sources.  


Religious sources in historic perspective    
A non-existent geocentric universe, deistic creation against Darwin's evolution, and astronomic observations and proof of a big bang show the basic fallibility and non- literally meaning of many old religious scriptures.  
Hence all religious sources have to be seen in perspective of their time of revelation; in the perspective of development and understanding of people at that time  . . .    
So in general no religious source can be seen as in all respects 100% reliable, rele- vant, and rigidly applicable in the present time  . . .    





    

Atheism and agnosticism           



Meaning of atheism  
What is meant with a-theism strongly depends on what we mean with the concept of Theos or God.   We may mean the denial of an antropomorphic or personal and imagi- nable creator-God, or we may mean the denial of any concept of a metaphysical Origin of existence, or any concept of any metaphysical Reality.  


Atheism and religions    
Many Buddhists, Jains and also Hindus do not believe in any concept of a personal God, and hence could be seen as atheists, however they do believe in an Ultimate Truth or Ultimate Reality . . . And also many modern Christians and Muslims do not believe in a personal or imaginable God or Allah with human traits . . .  
Hence one's atheism strongly depends on one's definition; excluding only the belief  
in a personal creator-God, or excluding any Ultimate Realty.    


Hard, or mild/modest atheism    
In general atheism can be seen as based on an exclusively rational approach, based on the assumption and conviction that there is no God, or, in a milder form, based on seeing no reason for any belief in any concept of God.  
Hard atheism can be seen as based on the settled conviction that there is no God, or supernatural Origin of existence, or whatever metaphysical Truth or Ultimate Reality, and a mild or modest atheism can be seen as based on seeing no reason for any belief in any imaginable concept of God, so in fact a "non-theism".  


Rational agnosticism  
Rational, hard, or permanent, and often radical agnosticism is based on the assump- tion and the premise, that one cannot know whether any God or supernatural entity or Ultimate Reality exists or not.  
This reasoning ignores however the empirical aspect of religion.  
For some, this kind of agnosticism is the basis of a convinced and hard atheism.  


Open agnosticism  
The most realistic and sincere agnosticism can be seen in so called open, empirical, or temporal agnosticism. Based on the literal meaning of the word as "not-knowing- ness", however with an openness towards new insights or experience or eventually future new insights or experience.    
A consciously open agnostic attitude means in general also an ego-identity as being   an open agnostic; however such an ego-identity can never lead to any agnostic fanati- cism or so, for open agnosticism also contains modesty or even humbleness . . .    


Religion out of agnosticism  
From a basic point of view a humble open agnosticism could be seen as the basis of all religions, for basically one believes because one doesn't know . . .  
Hence from the point of view of conversion-religions, open agnostic atheists are often a target for conversion.    
But on the other hand a basically permanent or more or less narcissistic agnosticism can be seen as the basis of a convinced or hard atheism.  


Atheism out of contradictions in religions  
Many people in the world have lost their faith and become atheists or agnostics because of contradictions they found in their religion or religious scriptures. Or also, contradictions of scientific discoveries with the literal texts in their religious scriptures.
However often because there was no freedom of interpretation in their religion  . . . . .  


Atheism out of scientific orientation  
Indulgence in the rational and mathematical logic of in general hard sciences, which are in general based on scientific observation and hard proof, has brought many people to an exclusive or hard atheism. Often an atheism out of the idea of the final know- ability of the nature of existence. This, e.g. supported by the idea of M-theory, as the big Theory Of Everything.       


Atheism and atheistic identity  
In the same way as religious people have a religious identity, also atheists do have an atheist identity. Any convinced atheist cannot escape from also an atheist ego-identity which is also connected with self-esteem and emotional aspects of life.    
And it can also be seen that the stronger an atheistic conviction, the stronger the sus- piciousness towards any religious concept, for one has become vulnerable because of an atheistic ego-identity; and then there is basically always a fear to lose something.
So it may also be clear that it is basically the atheistic ego-identity and an atheistic egocentrism which can make some atheists to atheistic fanatics . . .  





  

Our human morality        



Ancient religion and morality        
From the time humans started living in bigger groups, morality as well as science and art must have been part of religion and culture.  
The wise man had the knowledge, which were often medicine man or religious leaders, or people who were both, and rules of morality must have been first established by them.   (we could think of e.g. a biblical figure like Moses)  


Contemporary religion and morality      
Also contemporary religions which have been founded thousands of years ago still claim the monopoly of morality. Moral understandings and beliefs of the past have often been connected with religious beliefs and got established as such.  
And still today religious people in general consider their religion as the bases of their morality.    
  

Morality part of human nature        
As explained already, in the ancient past refined human cooperation was only possible in refined social connectedness, trust and reliability,  which in the end means friend- ship respect, integrity, helpfulness, empathy, justice, sense of responsibility, intelli- gence, and loyalty. And these can also be seen as our natural human virtues, or social / moral qualities of today . . .  
And this can also be seen as the natural basis of our universal human morality, and it implies also the concept of right and wrong.  
Although still today also many non-religious people consider morality to be part of reli- gion, human morality can be seen as totally founded in our social human nature. It's a purely natural and universal human phenomenon . . .      
However it can easily become overruled by egocentrism and antisocial survival culture. Nevertheless also non-religious people live according a morality, and even many non- religious criminals still have some morality.    


Psychology and psychiatry      
Morality is also part of psychology and psychiatry; our individual mentality and mental health are strongly related and even based on morality. However totally independent of any religion.    
Human morality is not something theoretical but something very practical in our daily life, which many are not aware of, due to a lack of moral education and moral under- standing . . .    


Feelings of justice      
Feelings of justice are strongly connected with our understanding of morality and ratio- nal convictions, which also can be wrong sometimes.    
However increasing our intelligence and moral understanding can strongly influence  
our feelings of justice; e.g. our feelings of justice related to vengeance, or our feelings of justice regarding homosexuality.    
Feelings of justice are morally based on integrity, empathy, respect and basic human equality and on moral understanding and awareness.  


Morality and criminality      
As mentioned, almost all criminality is based on egocentrism and respectlessness.    
However the egocentrism and respectlessness of many criminals is often strengthened by Machiavellianism and a criminal power-identity. And Machiavellianism basically means an anti-morality.
Machiavellinism in criminality can basically be seen as a criminal subculture of a criminal "morality" and law of the jungle. And this means basically a lack of moral understanding and lack of a morally positive identity.    


White-collar criminality      
Egocentrism and Machiavellianism can also be seen as the basis of all white-collar criminality and organized crime.  
It has been shown that people who choose business careers in general tend to have a lower moral development than people who choose other legitimate careers.  
And white-collar criminality often starts with adaptation to a smart corporate or busi- ness subculture, leading to corruption and fraud. Basically it is the temptation of opportunities that cannot be resisted if there is a lack of moral education and under- standing and lack of a moral identity.  


Moral identity against criminality      
Next to human empathy and respect a morally positive ego-identity has to be seen as the most basic prevention against criminality.  
Anybody who acts against his ego-identity will feel bad about that; even a psychopath who acts against his predator identity will feel bad about that . . .   And if we steal something we are a thieve, if we kill somebody we are a murderer, and if we hurt other people we are a violent person, and if we harm other people or our society in any way we see ourselves as a bad person, which harms our self-esteem if we have a morally positive identity . . .       
Hence a conscious morally positive (main-)identity has to be seen as a basic preven- tion against criminality  . . .  


Religious morality against criminality      
It may be clear that a criminal mentality basically shows a diminished or absent mora- lity, and this because of a criminal or more or less criminal identity.       
In most religions of the past a religious human morality has basically been established by the Bible, the Koran, or reincarnation belief, etc., and as such also a religious and morally positive identity; and in that way in general it prevented the development of a criminal or antisocial mentality and behaviour.    
However it may also be clear that also independent of religion a basic moral conditio- ning and a morally positive identity prevents the development of a criminal mentality.  




Thesis                  All criminal offenders, even with a distinct  
                    criminal mentality, can basically be decriminalized  
                  by a religion-independent moral education, in general  
                                  applied as a therapy or training.         




Re-socialization and rehabilitation      
As already mentioned, at the basis of a criminal mentality is a lack of moral under- standing and lack of a morally positive identity.    
However understanding the advantages of our human morality, and understanding the disadvantages of an egocentric criminal identity can basically motivate any criminal to choose for a morally positive identity  . . .       
Many re-socialization projects in the world have already proven the feasibility of re- socialization of criminals.    
And also the very existence of non-criminal psychopaths and narcissists proves basi- cally that even such people can be conditioned to a legal identity and mentality, and need not to be criminals in a legal sense . . .    
However obviously re-socialization of extreme cases takes more time than that of acci- dental offenders, and some extreme cases may also take an extremely long treat- ment.    


Religious belief and re-socialization      
In the two biggest religions in the world the basic nature of God or Allah is expressed as loving or compassionate and as forgiving or merciful. The Koran repeats 114 times  
(!) "Allah the compassionate", and also no Christian can deny the loving nature of God.
Hence any member of these religions acting unforgiving or uncompassionate, cannot be in harmony with his or her God or Allah, for he or she acts against the basic nature of his or her Supreme Diety . . .       
And so is also the application of any harsh or cruel punishment against the most basic nature of these religions. And hence can be said that also from a general religious point of view re-socialization can be seen as the most plausible answer to criminality.    


Religious belief against criminality      
Next to religious morality also a religious belief in general means a prevention against criminality, as far as within one and the same religious culture. A prevention, because to be in harmony with God, Allah or the laws of karma religious people have to live in a loving, compassionate and virtuous way. So to avoid disharmony with Allah, God, or the law of karma religious people have also to stay away from criminality.  
Hence in the sense of re-socialization also religions could play an important role . . .  


Self-knowledge morality and self-discipline      
Totally apart of religion, some basic self-knowledge in the sense of a basic understan- ding of our human nature is of fundamental importance for our social functioning, and to understand the naturalness and value of human morality.    
And a moral understanding, moral awareness and a morally positive identity can bring us then to a natural spontaneous human respect and to a basic self-discipline.  


Basic self-knowledge as a foundation of human morality      
A basic self-knowledge out of a basic understanding of our human nature and the negative aspects of an egocentric or antisocial mentality can basically also be seen  
as a primary religion-independent foundation of human morality . . .    
For, awareness of the negative consequences for everybody of egocentrism, individual survival-mentality, and lack of empathy, forces us towards a common morality.  
And also awareness of the negative effects of narcissism, or a (more or less ) psycho- pathic or Machiavellian mentality on ourselves, forces us towards a morally positive mentality . . .    





  

Theory of direction of human evolution  



Evolutionary developing process  
From the beginning of evolution of our most primitive "ancestors", may out of their first life and survival instinct have evolved perception and memory, and out of life, perception and memory may have evolved their first consciousness.  
And next out of their first memory and consciousness must have evolved some basal understanding, primary social nature, and basal intelligence.    
And then out of their primary social nature and intelligence can have evolved empathy, reliability, loyalty, friendship, love, peace and safety; and next out of love peace and safety must have evolved our ability to experience happiness . . .    


Simultaneous or other development  
Equally thinkable however is that all or most of these qualities have developed more or less simultaneously from the very moment of change of dead matter into the beginning of first life of our most primitive "ancestors".  
And still another possibility could be, that the highest human qualities have more or less suddenly developed in humans, caused by several evolutionary influences and events which created a change in the functioning of our brains.    


The core of development of humanity        
Whatever the process of development, the development of consciousness, under- standing, intelligence, love, peace and happiness can be seen as the core or essence of the evolutionary human developing process, as these evolutionary developed human qualities distinguish us from our very first and farthest ancestors.  And these human qualities are generally and globally seen as our very most precious human qualities and values  . . .     


In a wider sense      
From a little closer view at love also can be added: our ability of experiencing beauty, joy, friendliness, gratitude, empathy and orgasm, for love is the essence of the experi- ence of beauty, joy, friendliness, gratitude, empathy and true orgasm . . .    



Thesis           The essence or core of the evolutionary developing  
                 process of humanity can be defined as the development  
               of consciousness, understanding and intelligence, and our    
                    ability to live in peace and our ability to experience    
                      love, beauty, joy, orgasm, friendliness, empathy,  
                                      gratitude, and happiness.  


Concise definition      
But also a concise definition is possible, for consciousness and understanding can be seen as part of intelligence, and peace is the outcome of intelligence and love, and as said, the essence of beauty, joy, friendliness, empathy, gratitude and orgasm is love.  



Thesis             The core of the evolutionary developing process    
                 of humanity can basically be defined as the development  
                              of intelligence, love and happiness.
 



The direction and destiny of human development      
This understandable and imaginable core of development also indicates a direction of development as well as an ultimate destiny for humanity  . . .     
Important is here however to see that this human development process is going on already for many, many millions of years. Starting from the time that our "ancestors" were still in the stage of the most primitive form of life . . .    
And we have not much reason to believe that this long and beautiful line of develop- ment is going to change, and that's why we can project it into the future.  
The ultimate outcome can only be a super-intelligent, super-loving and super-happy humanity; far beyond our understanding and experience of today  . . . . .       


Direction of evolution of life in general        
Observing some other very social beings in the world like monkeys, dogs or dolphins etc. we can see a very similar evolutionary development, just on a little lower level. These animals show also a certain intelligence, and also love empathy and happiness are part of their experiences. And in some species even in spite of high testosterone males . . .    
However when  these  animals have followed a similar development like humans, then what about the development of other creatures like swine, chickens or fishes, or worms or insects.  
And what about plants and trees; although they have no brains, it is known that plants do "communicate" and react on each other by the release of chemicals in the air.  
So they might also have some kind of intelligence and consciousness out of a similar development . . .    
Basically in the whole of nature can more or less be observed the the same evolutio- nary direction of development as in humans . . .       


Basic process of evolution      
Science has suggested that hydrogen is the element in the universe, from which all other elements like helium and heavier elements have evolved in the centre of stars.  
And out of the elements from some exploded star in the ancient universe the earth and life on earth seems to have evolved.  
If all of this is true, then here can be seen how evolution seems to move from simplicity towards complexity, and from non-existence to existence, and from roughness to refinedness.  
Also has been observed that the universe is expanding, and expanding all time faster and faster. And there seems to be some similarity or congeniality in that expanding and moving to more and more complexity. It suggests some correlation, and eventually there might also be a common cause.  


Near future of humanity        
Reviewing these principles of evolutionary development and the core of our human development, it can be predicted that the social level of a society, or its "narcissistic    / psychopathic level" (egocentrism and lack of empathy etc.) is going to be the most crucial aspect of all societies in the world . . . . .    
Our empathic ability is of basic importance for our ability to be respectful and social and to continue the direction of our evolutionary development towards more intelligence love and happiness.    
And therefore our empathic ability should be considered as one of the most important parts of our human intelligence.  


Against cynical existential nihilism      
This theory of direction of evolution contradicts the nihilistic thesis and premise of several 19th- and 20th century philosophers (among which Nietzsche and Sartre etc.). Existential nihilism is not based on any evolutionary vision or in-depth empirical foun- dation, but simply on cynicism and purblindness; and it has mislead science and poli- tics and in fact depressed and uprooted a big part of humanity for more than a century.
Existential nihilism is based on the idea that if we don't see any sense or direction of life directly, then there also is no one.    





    

Basic intelligence      



Intelligence evolutionary        
Although our intelligence may directly originate in our memory and consciousness, the social aspect must have played the major role in our evolution.    
This because cooperation in harsh savannah circumstances asks for understanding and communication, and also for the sharing and collecting of new knowledge; and next growth of cooperation meant also growth of understanding and knowledge.  
Without our savannah based social development our human intelligence would proba- bly have been not much more than that of chimps or bonobos.    
In evolutionary sense our intelligence can be seen as a result of consciousness, alert- ness (high cortisol), perception and memory, and our basic social qualities of empathy connectedness, friendship, cooperation and communication. So basically a social intelligence which correlates with our social brains. And this has made humans to the most successful species on the earth.    



Thesis         No human can be called intelligent if he or she doesn't  
             understand the basics of his or her nature, or if he or she is not  
             aware of his or her very highest values, or if he or she doesn't  
                          understand the meaning of his or her life.    
( see also part ll )  



Most basic aspect of human intelligence        
Definitions and standards for intelligence are changing in relation to our understanding of ourselves, of the world we are living in, and of existence as such.  
However the most important and universal aspect of our human intelligence has to be seen in an understanding of the most basic aspects of our human life.  For if we are not aware of the most basic aspects of our human life, our intelligence has no foundation. And in that unawareness humanity as a whole is moving on; unaware of its basic and ultimate potential, and in blind egocentrism basic hostility chaos and war.  
And therefore all human education of the future should in the first place be focussed   on the development of a basic human intelligence.    


Basic intelligence in general          
Basic intelligence can be seen as in the first place knowledge and understanding of our human nature, and next of our very highest human values and most basic moral standards, and especially of our most basic natural virtues which are basically our very highest human qualities, for they are needed to realize and maintain our very highest universal human values of freedom peace love happiness and life itself.    
( see part ll )  
And it also includes insight in the effect of human morality on our (global) society.    
It may be clear that this most basic intelligence also contains our identity-awareness and our social intelligence.
And anybody without this basic intelligence could be seen as an underdeveloped indi- vidual in the future, if this basic knowledge will be recognized as universal and is going to be seen as part of general knowledge in all cultures.  


Our social intelligence           
As suggested already, one of the most basic aspects of our human intelligence has also to be seen in our social (or evolutionary) intelligence.  
And the most basic aspect of our social intelligence has to be seen in our human empathy and other basic human virtues needed to realize our very highest universal human values, and in an understanding of our social human nature and also antisocial traits like egocentrism, blind greed and narcissism and its implications.    
Our social intelligence is of basic importance for all human cooperation and prosperity and our ability to live in relaxedness harmony and peace.  


Understanding and knowledge         
From a social point of view understanding is in general a more important factor than knowledge. For only understanding each other can make us more social.  
Our super-social nature compared to all other living beings on earth is basically based on understanding and communication.    
And also, the better our ability to understand the better we can use our knowledge, and the higher we can develop our science.  
Our contemporary superiority to all other animals is in the first place based on our understanding, and just secondary on our superior knowledge.  
(which has developed just recently)  


Basic understanding and education        
Our knowledge should not be seen as the basis of our intelligence, but more as the means; and basic understanding should be seen as a much more important aspect, for much knowledge with a lacking basic understanding is almost useless and can even be dangerous, and much basic understanding with a lacking knowledge is in general more valuable.       
And therefore all human education of the future should be more based on basic under- standing than on just empty knowledge.  
Today knowledge can easily be found on the internet; however our understanding how to use or interpret it, is by far most important.    


Intelligence love and happiness  
Scientific investigations have shown that security, love and happiness are of basic importance for the brain-development of small children, and for optimal brain- functioning in general.    
Being loved and happiness are also of basic importance for our ability to learn, and also of basic importance for our ability to understand, think, perceive and to reason,  
for it frees and relaxes our brain.    
This connection of love, happiness and brain-function shows the importance of love and happiness in our lives in general, and it represents the core or essence of our evolutionary human development of intelligence love and happiness  . . .     


Basic intelligence from an individual perspective        
From an individual perspective the most basic aspect of our intelligence can be seen in our ability to realize our very highest human values of (inner) peace and freedom and love and happiness in our own life.  
And for this are needed a basic understanding of our human nature, a basic self-know- ledge, and our most basic human virtues,
(see part ll), and our ability to be aware of our most true identity, and ability to be in a state of mental relaxation or inner freedom.  


Success wealth and intelligence        
In our almost global capitalistic survival-culture of today many people see as the most successful people in the world the richest people in the world; but    in general  these people are also the most power-oriented, and those with the least empathic ability, and with the most narcissistic and eventually psychopathic "ability", just (or just not) staying within the law. But of course this doesn't apply to everybody living in wealth. (!)
Also successful and rich people are often seen as very intelligent, as they have attained to what most people would like to. However from a basic evolutionary point of view in the sense of evolutionary intelligence, empathy, love and happiness it may look in many cases totally different.  
And basically this evolutionary or social intelligence has to be seen as part of our most basic intelligence, and as put in the beginning, no human can be called intelligent if he or she doesn't understand the most basic aspects of his or her own life.    





  

Our way of thinking      



Assumption and belief  
Basically can be said that ultimately any rational human knowledge is belief and assumption; even mathematics is based on assumptions: the so called "axioms".    
So basically we ultimately know nothing; and thousands of years ago already the Greek philosopher Socrates saw that in the end he knew nothing.       
If we don't know the true nature of existence, then the whole of existence becomes a mystery; and then in fact ultimately we know nothing. All of our human knowledge is  
in the end just assumption and belief . . .    


Knowledge relativity and understanding           
Our most solid and sound knowledge is in general our knowledge based on direct perception. And perceptibility is in general seen as the basis of all proof.  
However all human knowledge is basically relative knowledge; related to our confined observation, our confined points of view, and to the confined nature of our minds.  
And as soon as we change our confined observation into knowledge, it is related to all other confined and relative knowledge in our minds.  
And so also all of our human thinking and understanding is a confined, and just a relative thinking and understanding.    
So our knowledge and understanding is no absolute knowledge and understanding, and hence we don't know the true nature of existence. In the end we don't really know the true nature of matter, energy, space, gravity, light, time, information, love, and human consciousness . . .  
All of our human understanding is just a confined and relative understanding,  which in general however is used as if it were about an absolute understanding . . . . .    


Logic reason and time      
Also our human logic which we use for our understanding we use as if it were about an absolute logic. Specifically, our causal thinking or reasoning in cause and effect.    
Causal thinking means "time-based" thinking; first is the cause, then follows the effect. However as mentioned already, the reality of existence doesn't know time; there it is always now . . .   Never tomorrow, and never yesterday . . . . .  
Time exists only in our minds, and our logic of causal thinking or reasoning is time- based; based on an ordering-principle of data in our memory, and we name them as "first" and "next" and "last", and also as "cause" or "effect".  
But the reality of existence is independent of our minds; a process of continuous   change miraculously in an eternal now . . .    


Practical reasoning and assumptions      
As explained, our knowledge is also confined to the limitation and narrowness of our perception and observation through our senses minds and instruments. And as such our reason also depends on the quality of our assumptions; and as said is our knowledge or assumption always from a certain point of view,  but also and always related to and often even based on other "knowledge" or assumptions.      
New discoveries, facts, or data create new assumptions in our mind and often cancel previous assumptions.    
And when we have to solve a problem, we first have to focus on the most important facts, or better, "most solid" assumptions, and next follow less important or "less solid" assumptions to be considered to come to a solution or conclusion.      


Scale of knowledge and belief      
In the practice of our daily life there are things which we claim to know, our assumed facts, and things which we are not really certain of, and things which we just believe.
If we imagine a horizontal line in front of us from the left to the right, we can put our most basic assumptions on the left side and our most uncertain assumptions on the right side, and in that way we can create a scale of knowledge and belief.  
The positive effect of my vitamin pills on my health I can choose to put on the right or on the left side of my scale. If I have found a "hard or solid proof" of their positive effect I can put them on the left side; if not, then it can be somewhere in the middle, or even maximum right, so just a belief out of wishful thinking . . .       


Assumptions and carefulness      
In the practice of our life in our thinking things should not always be true or untrue;
for our assumptions can always be seen as on the mentioned scale.    
This understanding can also create a certain carefulness in accepting or rejecting theses, conclusions or theories.  
Often we can assume things or conclusions for the time being, in the sense of a preliminary assumption which in the future after new discoveries or insights can be changed; e.g. assuming a "big bang" as the origin of the universe or so.  
Also many people tend to reject all assumptions in order not to make mistakes; however not being aware of the fact that in the end  all  of our knowledge is basically assumption and that we cannot think without that . . . . .    


Scientific way of thinking  
A scientific way of thinking can be seen as a way of thinking totally based on the pro- ven established and generally accepted assumptions and way of thinking of others, however, also on the errors of others  . . .    
The history of science is full of all kinds of errs, which had to be corrected by later new discoveries.  
Hence discoveries have to be seen as the very basis of science and basically not its conclusions and assumptions. Conclusions and assumptions can basically only be used for preliminary concepts still to be proven or rejected.       


Critical and independent way of thinking  
A critical independent and truth-oriented way of thinking is needed to be careful with all concepts assumptions and prejudices. An independent way of thinking in the sense of as much as possible free of prejudices and convictions, and independent of the autho- rity and opinions of others. And this also means out of a certain inner freedom.  
Out of the freedom and courage to doubt any dogma and even established truth.    
And a critical free and independent way of thinking and understanding can also be seen as a basic part of all creativity in the broadest sense.    


Causal relation correlation and assumption      
When in the practice of our life we can see some causal relation then we can often see this as a proof of something to be true. And it can easily bring us then to some more or less solid assumption.  
However often we would like to assume things for which we can find no proof, and as
a substitute for a proof in a causal relation we can use for the time being then correla- tions for a preliminary assumption, which later after new discoveries or insights even- tually can be changed.  
This way of thinking however can bring us easily to some sloppiness in our thinking and to confuse correlations with causal relations. Other reasons for this sloppiness can also be hurry, lack of time, or wishful thinking.    


Nothing is accidental      
Within human logic everything in nature is subject to cause and effect; and then nothing in nature can be accidental. And particularly in relation to human existence.    
All occurrences in nature which we call "accidental" are caused by powers, laws, or qualities of nature, which we know and which we do not, or not yet know.    
So according to our human logic life and human life can not have developed just "accidental" on this earth  . . . . .  
And to call something as just accidental basically means a refusal to admit that we don't know the cause of something, and it basically shows a scientific arrogance.    
Beyond human logic the whole of existence and our human existence can only be seen as one immense Mystery . . .       


Wishful thinking      
Wishful thinking has basically to be seen as a natural psychological phenomenon and as the basis of optimism, endurance, and idealism, and as the basis of most forms of human creativity in its broadest sense.    
However wishful thinking can also be against intelligence and realism . . .    
For wishful thinking is also the basis of choice-supportive bias, interpretation bias and selective interpretation. And also is wishful thinking the basis of cognitive dissonance, the denial of wrong wishful assumptions.  
And also M-theory as an attempt to create the big Theory Of Everything can basically be seen as a search for choice-supportive calculation, and as in the end based on wishful thinking; the choice is the big Theory Of Everything, and the search is driven  
by the wish to make things fit.  


Cynical way of thinking  
In the same way as we can think out of a wishful, optimistic, idealistic, or creative mental state, we can also think out of a negative, pessimistic, destructive, or cynical mental state. This can e.g. lead to a negative existential-nihilistic way of thinking.       
A wishful idealistic and creative mental state means also a creative and constructive way of thinking, and if we exclusively focus on the negative aspects of life, we can easily become negative, depressed and cynical which inhibits or prevents our realistic- idealistic, and creative way of thinking, and it creates purblindness . . .    
An example can be seen in J P Sartre and his existential nihilism.    
And also very important to see is that cynicism can also easily lead us to fatalism, apathy and depression . . .    


Modesty and arrogance      
Understanding our assumptive, relative, and confined way of thinking can bring us to some basic modesty.    
Man has discovered many things, however our human understanding is very confined because of our confined basic knowledge.  And man has committed many major mis- takes out of assumption of understanding, but basically a lack of understanding;  e.g. global environmental pollution, wars, religious extremism, capitalistic extremism, use of nuclear power, agricultural GM etc., all based on egocentrism, wishful thinking, assumption of understanding, and scientific arrogance.  
In the end we can just say what we think, see, and  think  to understand, and be very modest and careful in major decisions; for in the end we may be right or wrong.    
And this counts also for this writing of human basics; it doesn't state any absolute truth, but it's basically about what everybody can see, and about preliminary assump- tions, and basically a search for consensus and agreement . . .    


Adherence to truth      
Although all rational truth is basically a relative and confined truth, adherence to truth should yet be seen as one of the all-important qualities in our way of thinking, and directly connected with our integrity and being true.    
It is a way of thinking as much as possible free from all egocentrism and narcissism, and basically it is only the truth that counts.    
Hence it also means a basic readiness to change proven wrong opinions or beliefs.    
And it is also against untrue justifications of made wrong choices, and against denial of made mistakes and against denial of making mistakes.    
Also this way of thinking doesn't allow cognitive dissonance, and it also means to be careful with confirmation bias and to be always alert on wishful thinking. And it also means to be always alert on cognitive and belief bias.  
Adherence to truth is against befooling or lying to one-selves, and also against lying or manipulating the truth in discussions to be right; and it tends to create integrity and sincerity.    


Adherence to truth and self-knowledge      
As mentioned already, our adherence to truth is also directly connected with our human integrity and being true, and in the view of self-knowledge in the first place to being true to ourselves.  
Especially in view of negative human traits, like a very strong egocentrism, lack of empathy, unbounded greed, lack of positive creativity, lack of altruism, or also aware- ness of our human narcissism or eventually (more or less) psychopathic or Machia- vellian mentality, our adherence to truth is of basic importance to our self-knowledge.
And there may be a tendency to denial, because of cognitive dissonance (the denial of wrong wishful assumptions) . . . . .    
Of basic help can be here our attitude of realism, and our awareness that we are humans, and that basically nothing which is humane can be strange to us . . . . .  
And awareness of the newly discovered plasticity of our human brain may create an openness for change.  


Discussions  
The objective of a discussion can be to win that discussion, or to prove to be right,  
or the objective can be an exchange of information, which means to learn from other points of view, and to add something to the vision and understanding of someone else.
In the later case it's about an intelligent friendly and social happening of enriching each other's views and understanding.  
However if the objective is to win, the discussion becomes egocentric, and can easily become aggressive; and basically just a fight to be right . . .    
But when adherence to truth is the basic mentality of both parties, the discussion can be flexible, relaxed, interesting and improving.    


Mental relax and our intelligence  
In a more relaxed state of mind our brain in general works better than in an aggressive or frustrated state of mind. And in that way discussions can be more intelligent and make more sense if they are empathetic, respectful and friendly and not too much egocentric or a fight to be right.    


Egocentric survival-society and intelligence  
In a frustrated egocentric survival-society discussions are often between frustrated, aggressive, and egocentric people, who in fact don't care about the truth, but only about their own obsession of being right or to get the result they want.  
And here also can be seen the negative effect of a modern egocentric and narcissistic survival-culture on our human intelligence . . .    


Debates  
Debates are only needed for decisions to be made. They are needed to choose the right point of view for a decision.    
Contrary to the discussion, here someone has to have the right vision to base the decision on.    
However also here is no need for the fight to be right, but just for understanding the right point of view for the decision . . .  


Sense of humour  
Sense of humour should be seen as an important part of our human intelligence. It has much to do with our ability to take a little distance from our points of view, and from our egocentrism or self-importance.  
Humour brings laughter and joy, and relaxes our brain for a few moments, and can bring some mental relax which is needed for good brain-functioning and an intelligent communication.  


Laughter  
Laughter creates a relaxed state of mind and is closely related to our ability to experi- ence love and happiness.    
In true and total laughter we can easily forget our egos and self-importance, and even our frustration and anger or sadness and other misery.  
In a state of total and true laughter one can get a taste of one's true human identity. . .
So laughter can bring us also a little closer to the experience of love and happiness.  
Also regular laughter improves and strengthens our immune system and makes us less sensitive for bacteria, viruses and diseases.  
And hence there must be something wrong if in any place in the world true and spon- taneous laughter is not allowed . . .    





  

Human creativity and art      



First human creativity      
As long as humans or their ancient ancestors have been building their own shelters eventually by just digging holes in the ground, or making nests like birds or construc- ting hovels or huts with some branches etc. creativity was needed. And this may even have been long before our far   ancestors evolved to hominids.    
And next creativity was needed to make their first tools and spears for hunting, and later to make their first bows and arrows and arms etc.    
Creativity can be seen as one of our oldest human qualities or virtues and as an impor- tant part of our evolutionary intelligence.       


Human creativity today      
Also our human creativity of today should be seen as an important part of our human intelligence; basically the urge to create something valuable or something beautiful.    
Something valuable or beautiful for ourselves, or for other people, or for nature which we are all part of.  
And basically spontaneous positive creativity can be seen as an act out of freedom and out of a more or less independent vision or thought and out of love. And any posi- tive creation is basically a gift; either to ourselves, or to other people, or to our society, or humanity or nature.  
One has brought something valuable into existence which did not exist before.    


Positive and negative creativity      
All human work can basically be called creative, for one creates something; however this can be positive creative or negative creative.  
Negative creative is any work directly or indirectly destructive or harmful to humans or nature, so basically the opposite of a gift to other people, society, humanity or nature.
Work or productivity in favour of our society can in general be seen as positive creative, although it depends on the nature of that creativity and on the nature of our society.  
Also some human creations can have as well positive as negative aspects; positive or negative is then dependent on one's understanding and development . . .    


Cooperative creativity      
When many creative people work together they can create works like a Taj Mahal, or pyramids, atomic bombs, space rockets to the moon, tv sets and computers, cell- phones and internet, beautiful cars, and all kinds of products generally associated with prosperity.  
All of these human products show and prove the huge potential of cooperative human creativity.  However still governed and confined by greed- power- and narcissism based economics and politics . . .    
But if all humans would use their creativity in a more intelligent and exclusively positive way, and in an uninhibited cooperative way, then this could mean a tremendous poten- tial to change our world in the direction of a better place for every human . . .    


Individual cooperative creativity      
Positive creative is also the work of someone who all his or her life has been continu- ously cleaning and re-cleaning the house, or working-place, or bathrooms etc. of other positive creative people. Such work is certainly positive creative, for he or she has enabled others to be creative in their field, and this makes him or her in fact to a co- creator . . .  Any seemingly useless work can be positive creative if it creates directly or indirectly a better quality of life for others  . . .  
And everybody can only be positive creative according his or her talents, development and life circumstances.    


Payment for creativity      
Payment for work or creativity doesn't change the value of the creation; even not if one creates or works in the first place to make a living. Creation is creation, and keeps its value . . .    


Artistic creativity      
When the word of creativity is mentioned many people think in the first place of art.    
And although all humans have a basic potential of artistic creativity and some level of artistic talent, not everybody has developed his or her talent to a really artistic level.  
However there are also many basically very talented people who never developed their talent. This can often be seen in the arrangement, furnishing, decoration and fitting up of the interior of homes all over the world, and regardless the level of wealth or poverty.


Art and its message      
Any work of art, whatever its kind, carries a message. This message can be striking  
or overwhelming or it can be subtle or very subtle, or a combination of these.  
And in an emotional sense this message can be positive creative or it can be negative creative or it can be both, or eventually neutral.  
Positive creative in the sense of beauty and creating a sense of well-being, negative creative if depressing, offensive or annoying etc.    


Art and taste      
Beauty is just one of many qualities of art.    
However, the beauty of art and especially architecture, is highly decisive of our sense of well-being in our home, and also, or especially, in our town or city.
However beauty is in general a relative experience; relative to other similar products of art, and relative to the development of our taste and perceptive ability.       
And it can be seen as a universal wisdom that beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but in art this is not the only truth. There are also works of art of a generally acknowledged
beauty. But the more egocentric or psychopathic our mentality, the less our sense of beauty . . . Hence also our narcissism can inhibit or block off our sense of beauty . . .
And for many more or less psychopathic and many narcissistic people beauty is just what others call beautiful, and anything new or exiting . . .    


Architecture as an art in our society      
Architecture can next to film and music be seen as one of the most outstanding kinds of art, with a very strong impact on our quality of life.    
Architecture of our house, of our environment, of our village or town and also the land- scape we are living in has in general a very high impact on our sense of well-being.    
Hence architecture and town and country planning can be seen as one of the most important kinds of art and creativity for now and in the future  . . .       










  

Definitions and explanations      



Atheism  
In this writing: in general a convinced or hard atheism; so a belief, assumption and conviction, that there is no God or any metaphysical Origin of existence, or whatever metaphysical Truth or Ultimate Reality.  


Basic intelligence      
In short: knowledge, understanding, and awareness of human nature, and most basic human values, standards, and virtues and vices, and of their relations and implications.


Consciousness and being    
Consciousness can be observed as a quality of our being; so an adjective, and not a noun in the sense of some phenomenon separate of our being. Our being can be aware or conscious of our feelings, and of our thoughts and imaginations, and mira- culously also of itself . . .  
And also can our being be aware or conscious of its consciousness, or of the fading away of its consciousness . . .  Also can be seen, that only through consciousness our being can be aware of an experience of love, happiness, gratitude or orgasm, and eventually of our very deepest human nature . . .
However someone in coma, deep sleep or under anaesthesia can in general be called unconscious, although unawareness of our environment through our senses doesn't necessarily mean unawareness of our being . . . . . But also, the phenomenon of life itself in coma, deep sleep or anaesthesia doesn't necessarily mean awareness of being . . . . .


Deepest human nature      
With our deepest human nature is meant here our very deepest human nature which is part of the very deepest nature of existence. Basically a spontaneous or meditative experience, but often also called a spiritual or religious experience.  
An experience out of our most true human identity, however beyond our most true identity; an inexpressible experience, in which our (most true) identity dissolves, and basically an experience beyond time, imagination, and any relativity.       


Demonizing      
Demonizing of other people is a way of repressing or blocking off our empathy with them, and preventing our understanding that the other is basically as we are ourselves.
This, by projecting bad, evil or dangerous qualities on him, her or them.    
Demonizing is the basis of enemy-thinking and all negative discrimination.    
In times of war the enemy has to be demonized, other ways we cannot fight with  
them . . .  
  

Egocentrism*      
To make one's ego the only centre in one's way of thinking, and to make oneself so important, that one doesn't see any more the interests or needs of other people.       
It means an exclusive self-focusedness, and contains egoism, complacency and  an exaggerated self-concern. And often it also contains egotism and self-conceit.  
Egocentrism represses empathy and spontaneous natural human respect, and it creates respectlessness in general, and for nature which we are all part of.    
Meant is here more or less Piaget's use of the word; a childlike way of thinking, and hence basically a sign of underdevelopment.    
Also is egocentrism a basic aspect of narcissism and a culture of uninhibited and boundless greed.    


Egocentrism apart of narcissism             
Many very egocentric people are not narcissistic in the sense of egotistic and lack of self-worth, but they may tend more towards psychopathy with a stable independent ego-identity, or more to mainly egoism, or to just indifference to others without other narcissistic traits.  
However all of these are often in lack of empathy, and hence also in lack of a natural spontaneous human respect.  


Empathy      
Our ability to understand, reproduce and experience the feelings of others.    
Empathy comes forth from our perception and understanding that the other is basically as we are ourselves, and it creates feelings of connectedness and a spontaneous human respect.  
And the understanding that the other is basically as we are ourselves is created by means of the mirror-neurons in our nerve-system and brains.  
Empathy has to be seen as basically a human potential or talent, to be developed already in early childhood.    


Existential  
Contradictory to imaginary; meaning in real existence, or really existing.  


Happiness "defined"   
In general:
To be in a pleasant mental state of contentment in one's circumstances. 
Or, better, to be in a pleasant and loving state of contentment in one's circumstances. 
More profoundly:
A beyond pleasant and content state of being, in unconcernedness, unburdenedness,  and love, and in a sense of inner freedom.
Or, an inner experience of being and loving in a state of total inner freedom and clarity in our most true and ego-less identity. 
And ultimately:
To be in a state of being of total inner freedom and fulfilment with love and ecstasy, and out of this an understanding beyond a rational understanding. 
Or, an experience of being in a profound quality of love beyond love, out of our totally true human identity, in a total inner freedom and indescribable quality of ecstasy. 


Imaginary  
As in imagination; can be as a photographic fantasy, or as a more or less abstract, or theoretical image.  


Intelligence  
With intelligence is meant in this writing: multiple intelligence, more or less as defined by H. Gardner. However where existential, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence are seen as most basic. Existential intelligence could however also be seen as included in intrapersonal intelligence.    


Love "defined"  
Feelings or experience of deep connectedness or oneness with any other human  
being, any animal, nature, or unnamable . . .    
Love may happen to us when we are able to be open to the beauty and nature of other people, or to the beauty and mystery of nature in general or even beautiful things.  
However this superficial analytical description of love can say nothing of the deeper and incomprehensible empirical nature of it . . .   (!)      


Metaphysical      
Concerning the reality and nature of existence beyond the direct rational and mathematical logic of physics.  


Morality      
Basically an understanding of socially right and wrong behaviour, and right and wrong personal qualities, and awareness of our highest moral values, standards and virtues, and to live out of a morally positive identity.    


Moral understanding      
Understanding and insight of the relatedness of human nature, human values, moral standards and moral virtues, and the common interest of all people in it.  


Most true human identity      
Our deepest human identity, or ego-less identity; an experiencial human identity beyond imagination, judgment or thought,  however not necessarily beyond time.    
Can be experienced in total and true laughter, total orgasm, and in total love or happiness, or meditation, prayer, etc.  


Narcissistic mentality      
A mentality more or less like in narcissism, however not necessarily with the most negative aspects of clearly lying, deceiving, and exploiting of others.    


Primary social nature  
With primary social nature is meant here an instinctive parental nature to protect eggs and later offspring. A social nature in which empathy is not yet included.  
(mirror-neurons don't work with eggs).    


Psychopaths and sociopaths      
In general sociopaths are called criminal people who have been categorized under ASPD (antisocial personality disorder).    
However some specialists on the subject of psychopathy now tend to call people who are genetically predisposed to be sensitive for the development of psychopathy psy- chopaths, and psychopaths who are not genetically predisposed, sociopaths.  
This, out of the assumption that genetically predisposed psychopathy is not curable, and that environmentally caused psychopathy can be cured.    
However there is not any scientific proof for this. And when in future genetically predis- posed children could be early detected and given an appropriate education and not develop the disorder, they would still carry the label of psychopathy.  
And a prenatal and/or educational extremely psychologically damaged and maybe incurable serial killer would be called then just a sociopath.  
It seems better to leave the title sociopath with the ASPD people and other criminals who often have a semi-psychopathic mentality; also indicating their curability.


Religion  
Religion can basically be defined as a belief, desire, or experience of connectedness or oneness with the Origin of existence, or the Ultimate Reality, or Ultimate Truth, or the Deepest Nature or Very Essence of existence.  


Respect literally  
From re - spect; so literally: to look once more; to look a little better to another person, or to the society, or to nature, etc.   To look once more, to create an understanding of the other which creates feelings of connectedness, sympathy, or even loving.  
So, to take the or that other in account and to make the or that other important.


Respectlessness           
With respectless and respectlessness is meant here disregard,  however with an accent on the absence of human respect.  
Disregard seems to contain a weakening by moving away from the word of respect.    
It seems to contain some blurring or smoothing over the fact of absence of respect.    


Social Darwinism           
With social Darwinism is meant here the theory that the life of humans in a society has basically to be an individual struggle for existence, ruled by the survival of the fit- test. Wealth is seen here to be a sign of natural superiority, and its absence a sign of unfitness. And this theory has often been used to justify the laissez-faire capitalism, imperialism, and racism . . .  
However social Darwinism in the sense of an individual survival mentality within a hu- man society is basically against our social human nature, as genetically established  
in our physical human brains (mirror-neurons and oxytocin etc.).  
And social Darwinism supports egocentrism, narcissism, antisocial behaviour and a psychopathic mentality in any human society . . .    


Survival conditioning      
Programming by movie, computer-game, tv.program etc. or in real life, of a survival- mentality, egocentrism, enemy-thinking, demonizing of people, repression of empathy, and respectlesness, ruthlessness, and violence.    


Thesis  
In this writing: a statement suggested for assumption as a basic premise or a basic consideration in our way of thinking.    
Sometimes this may be a statement which is for many or most people obvious.    


Virtue / moral quality / moral virtue      
Moral quality, or moral goodness, in the sense of a developed natural human quality  
of mind and identity, supporting the realization and continuation of our very highest individual and social human values. So, supportive to the well-being and happiness of other people, our society or humanity, as well as of ourselves. Virtues or moral quali- ties can also be seen as social qualities.